See also Antihypertensive Agents. Action/Kinetics: Decreases elevated BP by decreasing peripheral resistance by a direct effect. Causes increase in renin secretion, increase in cardiac rate and output, and salt/water retention. Does not cause orthos-tatic hypotension. Onset: 30 min. Peak plasma levels: reached within 60 min; plasma tv2: 4.2 hr. Duration: 24-48 hr. Ninety percent absorbed from GI tract; excretion: renal (90% metabolites). The time needed to reach the maximum effect is inversely related to the dose. Uses: Severe hypertension not controllable by the use of a diuretic plus two other antihypertensive drugs. Usually taken with at least two other antihypertensive drugs (a diuretic and a drug to minimize tachycardia such as a beta-adrenergic blocking agent). Minoxidil can produce severe side effects; it should be reserved for resistant cases of hypertension. Close medical supervision required, including possible hospitalization during initial administration. Topically to promote hair growth in balding men. Contraindications: Pheochromo-cytoma. Within 1 month after a MI. Dissecting aortic aneurysm. Special Concerns: Safe use during lactation not established. Use with caution and at reduced dosage in impaired renal function. Geriatric clients may be more sensitive to the hypotensive and hypothermic effects of minoxidil; also, it may be necessary to decrease the dose in these clients due to age-related decreases in renal function. BP controlled too rapidly may cause syncope, stroke, MI, and ischemia of affected organs. Experience with use in children is limited.
Side Effects: CV: Edema, pericardial effusion that may progress to tamponade (acute compression of heart caused by fluid or blood in pericardium), CHF, angina pectoris, changes in direction of T waves, increased HR. In children, rebound hypertension following slow withdrawal. GI: N&V. CNS: Headache, fatigue. Hypersensitivity: Rashes, including bullous eruptions and Stevens-Johnson syndrome. Hematologie: Initially, decrease in hematocrit, hemoglobin, and erythro-cyte count but all return to normal. Rarely, thrombocytopenia and leu-kopenia. Other: Hypertrichosis (enhanced hair growth, pigmentation and thickening of fine body hair 3-6 weeks after initiation of therapy), breast tenderness, darkening of skin. Drug Interactions CNS depressant drugs, especially those used in conscious sedation / T Hypotension Indomethaein / l Effects NSAIDS / l Effects Sympathomimetics / l Effects How Supplied: Tablet: 2.5 mg, 10 mg
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Your heart pumps blood throughout your body using a network of tubing called arteries and capillaries which return the blood back to your heart via your veins. Blood pressure is the force of the blood pushing against the walls of your arteries as your heart beats.Learn more...