Classification Opioid antagonist

See also Opioid Antagonists. Action/Kinetics: Combines competitively with opiate receptors and blocks or reverses the action of narcotic analgesics. Since the duration of action of naloxone is shorter than that of the narcotic analgesics, the respiratory depression may return when the narcotic antagonist has worn off. Onset: IV, 2 min; SC, IM: <5 min. Time to peak effect: 5—15 min. Duration: Dependent on dose and route of administration but may be as short as 45 min. tV2: 60-100 min. Metabolized in the liver to inactive products; eliminated through the kidneys.

Uses: Respiratory depression induced by natural and synthetic narcotics, including butorphanol, metha-done, nalbuphine, pentazocine, and propoxyphene. Drug of choice when nature of depressant drug is not known. Diagnosis of acute opiate overdosage. Not effective when respiratory depression is induced by hypnotics, sedatives, or anesthetics and other nonopioid CNS depressants. Adjunct to increase BP in septic shock. Non-FDA Approved Uses: Treatment of Alzheimer's dementia, alcoholic coma, and schizophrenia. Contraindications: Sensitivity to drug. Opioid addicts (drug may cause severe withdrawal symptoms).

nNot recommended for use in neo-nates.

Special Concerns: Safe use during lactation and in children is not established.

Side Effects: N&V, sweating, hypertension, tremors, sweating due to reversal of opioid depression. If used postoperatively, excessive doses may cause ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation, hypo- or hypertension, pulmonary edema, and seizures (infrequent).

Drug Interactions: No drug interactions of concern to dental health have been reported. How Supplied: Injection: 0.02 mg/mL, 0.4 mg/mL, 1 mg/mL

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