Phenobarbital sodium

[fee-no-BAR-bih-tal] Pregnancy Category: D

Luminal Sodium [C-IV] [Rx] Classification: Sedative, anticonvulsant, barbiturate type

See also Barbiturates. Action/Kinetics: Long-acting. tVi: 53-140 hr. Onset: 30 to more than 60 min. Duration: 10-16 hr. Anticonvulsant therapeutic serum levels: 15-40 mcg/mL. Time for peak effect, after IV: up to 15 min. Distributed more slowly than other barbiturates due to lower lipid solubility. Is 50%-60% protein bound. Twenty-five percent eliminated unchanged in the urine.

Uses: PO: Sedative, hypnotic (short-term), anticonvulsant (partial and generalized tonic-clonic or cortical focal seizures); emergency control of acute seizure disorders such as status epilepticus, meningitis, tetanus, eclampsia, toxicity of local anesthetics. Parenteral: Sedative, hypnotic (short-term), preanesthetic, anticonvulsant, emergency control of acute seizure disorders. Special Concerns: The dose should be reduced in geriatric and debilitated clients as well as those with impaired hepatic or renal function. Additional Side Effects: Chronic use may result in headache, fever, and megaloblastic anemia. How Supplied: Phenobarbital: Capsule: 16 mg; Elixir: 20 mg/5 mL; Tablet: 15 mg, 16 mg, 16.2 mg, 30 mg, 60 mg, 100 mg. Phenobarbital sodium: Injection: 30 mg/mL, 60 mg/mL, 65 mg/mL, 130 mg/mL

Dosage-

Phenobarbital, Phenobarbital Sodium

• Capsules, Elixir, Tablets

Sedation.

Adults: 30-120 mg/day in two to three divided doses. Pediatric: 2 mg/kg (60 mg/m2) t.i.d.

Hypnotic. Adults: 100-200 mg at bedtime. Pe-diatric: Dose should be determined by provider, based on age and weight.

Anticonvulsant. Adults: 60-100 mg/day in single or divided doses. Pediatric: 3-6 mg/kg/day in single or divided doses.

Sedation.

Adults: 30-120 mg/day in two to three divided doses.

Preoperative sedation. Adults: 100-200 mg IM only, 60-90 min before surgery. Pediatric: 1-3 mg/kg IM or IV 60-90 min prior to surgery.

Hypnotic. Adults: 100-320 mg IM or IV.

Acute convulsions. Adults: 200-320 mg IM or IV; may be repeated in 6 hr if needed. Pediatric: 4-6 mg/kg/day for 7-10 days to achieve a blood level of 10-15 mcg/mL (or 15 mg/kg/day, IV or IM).

Status epilepticus. Adults: 15-20 mg/kg IV (given over 10-15 min); may be repeated if needed. Pediatric: 15-20 mg/kg given over a 10- to 15-min period.

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