Drugs for Dissolving Gallstones A

Altitude Meteorism

Following its secretion from liver into bile, water-insoluble cholesterol is held in solution in the form of micellar complexes with bile acids and phospholipids. When more cholesterol is secreted than can be emulsified, it precipitates and forms gallstones cholelithiasis . Precipitated cholesterol can be reincorporated into micelles, provided the cholesterol concentration in bile is below saturation. Thus, cholesterol-containing stones can be dissolved slowly. This effect can be achieved by...

Inhibitors of the RAA System

Raa System

Angiotensin-converting enzyme ACE is a component of the antihypotensive renin-angiotensin-aldosterone RAA system. Renin is produced by specialized cells in the wall of the afferent arteriole of the renal glomerulus. These cells belong to the juxtaglomerular apparatus of the nephron, the site of contact between afferent arteriole and distal tubule, and play an important part in controlling nephron function. Stimuli eliciting release of renin are a drop in renal perfusion pressure, decreased rate...

Flucortisone Against Blackouts Bradycardia

Beets Adverse Side Effects

Coronary atherosclerosis angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, arrhythmia Atherosclerosis of cerebral vessels cerebral infarction stroke Cerebral hemorrhage Atherosclerosis of renal vessels renal failure A. Arterial hypertension and pharmacotherapeutic approaches The venous side of the circulation, excluding the pulmonary circulation, accommodates 60 of the total blood volume because of the low venous pressure mean -15 mmHg it is part of the low-pressure system. The arterial vascular beds,...

Inhibitors of Cell Wall Synthesis

Blocks Cell Wall Synthesis Penicillin

In most bacteria, a cell wall surrounds the cell like a rigid shell that protects against noxious outside influences and prevents rupture of the plasma membrane from a high internal osmotic pressure. The structural stability of the cell wall is due mainly to the murein peptidoglycan lattice. This consists of basic building blocks linked together to form a large macromolecule. Each basic unit contains the two linked aminosug-ars N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetyl-muramyl acid the latter bears a...

Drugs for Treating Endo and Ectoparasitic Infestations

Diuretic Adverse Reactions

Adverse hygienic conditions favor human infestation with multicellular organisms referred to here as parasites . Skin and hair are colonization sites for arthropod ectoparasites, such as insects lice, fleas and arachnids mites . Against these, insecticidal or arachnici-dal agents, respectively, can be used. Endoparasites invade the intestines or even internal organs, and are mostly members of the phyla of flatworms and roundworms. They are combated with anthelmintics. Anthelmintics. As shown in...