Nomenclature of releasing hormones

RH-releasing hormone; RIH—re-lease inhibiting hormone.

GnRH: gonadotropin-RH = gona-dorelin stimulates the release of FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) and LH (luteinizing hormone).

TRH: thyrotropin-RH (protirelin) stimulates the release of TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone = thyrotropin).

CRH: corticotropin-RH stimulates the release of ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone = corticotropin).

GRH: growth hormone-RH (soma-tocrinin) stimulates the release of GH (growth hormone = STH, somatotropic hormone). GRIH somatostatin inhibits release of STH (and also other peptide hormones including insulin, glucagon, and gastrin).

PRH: prolactin-RH remains to be characterized or established. Both TRH and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) are implicated.

PRIH inhibits the release of prolactin and could be identical with dop-amine.

Hypothalamic releasing hormones are mostly administered (parenterally) for diagnostic reasons to test AH function.

Therapeutic control of AH cells. GnRH is used in hypothalamic infertility in women to stimulate FSH and LH secretion and to induce ovulation. For this purpose, it is necessary to mimic the physiologic intermittent "pulsatile" release (approx. every 90 min) by means of a programmed infusion pump.

Gonadorelin superagonists are GnRH analogues that bind with very high avidity to GnRH receptors of AH cells. As a result of the nonphysiologic uninterrupted receptor stimulation, initial augmentation of FSH and LH output is followed by a prolonged decrease. Bu-serelin, leuprorelin, goserelin, and trip-torelin are used in patients with prostat-ic carcinoma to reduce production of testosterone, which promotes tumor growth. Testosterone levels fall as much as after extirpation of the testes (2).

The dopamine D2 agonists bromocriptine and cabergoline (pp. 114, 188) inhibit prolactin-releasing AH cells (indications: suppression of lactation, pro-lactin-producing tumors). Excessive, but not normal, growth hormone release can also be inhibited (indication: acromegaly) (3).

Octreotide is a somatostatin analogue; it is used in the treatment of somatostatin-secreting pituitary tumors.

Hypothalamic releasing hormones

Release into blood

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