Specificity to Alzheimers Disease

Upregulation of clusterin and abnormal staining of lesions for apoE is not limited to AD. Brain levels of clusterin seem to be elevated in many conditions involving injury or chronic inflammation of the brain. Elevated levels of the mRNA for clusterin are seen in the hippocampus in Pick's disease as well as in AD.4 Abnormal staining for clusterin has been seen in dystrophic neurites and some NFTs in the Parkinson's dementia complex of Guam (Fig. 7.1). It has also been seen in humans in ischemic...

Peripheral Nerve Injury Produces an Increased Expression of Clusterin in Perineuronal Astrocytes

Nerve Damage Cartoon

Concomitantly with the response of axotomized motoneurons, astrocytes in their immediate surrounding undergo hypertrophy and express several molecular features of increased activity.1 A structural modification which may be of particular significance for the forthcoming discussion is an increased astrocytic coverage of the axotomized perikarya. This process is probably the consequence of an extensive stripping of presynaptic terminals from the surface of the injured nerve cell bodies, perhaps...

References

1.Wisniewski T, Ghiso J, Frangione B. Biology of Ap amyloid in Alzheimer's disease. Neurobiol Dis 1997 4 311-28. 2. Kalaria RN, Premkumar 6RD, Pax AB et al. Production and increased detection of amyloid p protein and amyloidogenic fragments in brain microvessels, meningeal vessels and choroid plexus in Alzheimer's disease. Mol Brain Res 1996 35 58-68. 3. Haass C, Selkoe DJ. Cellular processing of p-amyloid precursor protein and the genesis of amyloid beta-peptide. Cell 1994 75 1039-42. 4....

Peripheral Nerve Injury Produces an Increased Expression of Clusterin in CNS Neuronal Perikarya

The prototypic experimental model for exploring the neuron-glial responses following axon injury is the motoneuron nuclei of cranial or spinal nerves. Shortly after axotomy, the neurons express many features of dedifferentiation, downregulating functions associated with synaptic transmission and upregulating growth-associated processes.1,2 These modifications are believed to enhance regrowth of the injured axons. Motoneurons already express low levels of immunoreactivity for clusterin from...

Potential Roles for apoE and apoJ in CNS Disease

Further studies to understand the structure and function of apoE and apoJ-containing lipoproteins produced by cells within the brain is likely to provide important insights into the role of these proteins in neurodegenerative and other diseases of the CNS. This issue will be considered in regard to Alzheimer's disease AD and brain repair following CNS injury. Genetic epidemiological studies have shown that the e4 allele of apoE is a major risk factor for AD.43 In addition, recent data suggests...