Alterations associated with intravenous drug abuse

Intravenous drug abusers may crush oral medications and make them soluble for intravenous injection. Methadone24 and propoxyphene25 are examples of oral drugs that are abused in this fashion. The filler material in the pills contains insoluble particles that cause thrombosis, granulomatous inflammation, and fibrosis in the lungs. The granulomas have numerous multinucleated giant cells and birefrigent foreign material (Figure 2.3.2). In addition to their morphology, the foreign particles can be...

Examination of the Myocardium in Ischemic Heart Disease

In the presence or absence of acute or healed myocardial infarction, the myocardium is best examined by slicing the ventricles in a manner similar to a loaf of bread. To evaluate the specimen, a series of short-axis cuts are made through the ventricles from apex to base (Figure 2.2.1.5A). This method is best accomplished using a long, sharp knife on the intact fixed specimen following examination of the coronary arteries. With the anterior aspect of the heart downward (against the cutting...

Cocaine

Cocaine Metabolic Metabolism

Cocaine is a naturally occurring alkaloid obtained from the plant Erythroxylon coca L. This plant grows in the Andes region of South America, ideally at elevations between 1,500 to 5,000 ft.1 A second closely related species has been identified , Erythroxylon novogranatense H., and each species has one variety known as E. coca var. ipadu Plowman and E. coca novogranatense var. truxilllense, respectively. Cocaine may also be chemically synthesized with cold aqueous succinaldehyde and cold...

Pathology encountered in crack smokers

Bailey et al.1 examined the lungs of dead cocaine abusers and found the most common pulmonary findings were pulmonary congestion (88 ), edema (77 ), and acute chronic alveolar hemorrhage (71 ). These findings have been also reported by Murray et al.2-3 found hemosiderin-laden macrophages in 35 (7 20) of the victims of cocaine intoxication and opined that occult alveolar hemorrhage occurs more frequently in cocaine users than is clinically recognized. They also noted pulmonary artery medial...

Marijuana

The term marijuana refers to all parts of the plant Cannabis sativa L., whether growing or not the seeds resin extracted from any part of such plant and every compound, salt, derivative or mixture, but does not include the mature stalks, fiber produced from the stalks, or oil or cake prepared from the seeds.1 Cannabis sativa L. is an annual plant that grows in all parts of the world to a height of 16 to 18 ft. Commercially, it is cultivated for hemp production, with the bulk of the plant...

Analyzing Drugs In The Forensic Science Laboratory

No other topic related to the identification of controlled substances causes as much controversy as testing specificity. Forensic science laboratories conduct two different categories of tests. Tests in the first category are called screening tests. They include a series of tests used to make a preliminary determination of whether a particular drug or class of drugs is present. It must be emphasized that screening tests are not used to positively identify any drug. At best, screening tests can...