Criminalisticsintroduction To Controlled Substances

Joseph P. Bono, MA

Supervisory Chemist, Drug Enforcement Administration, Special Testing and Research Laboratory, McLean, Virginia table of contents

1.1 Definition and Scheduling of Controlled Substances

1.2 Scheduling of Controlled Substances

1.3 Controlled Substance Analogue Enforcement Act of 1986

1.4 Controlled Substances

1.4.1 Heroin

1.4.1.1 Heroin Sources by Region

1.4.1.2 Isolation of Morphine and Heroin Production

1.4.2 Cocaine

1.4.2.1 Sources of Cocaine

1.4.2.2 Historical Considerations

1.4.2.3 Isolation and Purification

1.4.2.4 Conversion to "Crack"

1.4.2.5 Other Coca Alkaloids

1.4.2.6 Cocaine Adulterants

1.4.3 Marijuana

1.4.3.1 History and Terminology

1.4.3.2 Laboratory Analysis

1.4.4 Peyote

1.4.5 Psilocybin Mushrooms

1.4.6 Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD)

1.4.7 Phencyclidine (PCP)

1.4.8 Fentanyl

1.4.9 Phenethylamines

1.4.10 Methcathinone (CAT)

1.4.11 Catha Edulis (KHAT)

1.4.12 Anabolic Steroids

1.4.12.1 Regulatory History

1.4.12.2 Structure Activity Relationship

1.4.12.3 Forensic Analysis

1.5 Legitimate Pharmaceutical Preparations

1.5.1 Benzodiazepines

1.5.2 Other Central Nervous System Depressants

1.5.3 Narcotic Analgesics

1.5.4 Central Nervous System Stimulants

1.5.5 Identifying Generic Products

1.6 Unique Identify Factors

1.6.1 Packaging Logos

1.6.2 Tablet Markings and Capsule Imprints

1.6.3 Blotter Paper LSD

1.7 Analyzing Drugs in the Forensic Science Laboratory

1.7.1 Screening Tests

1.7.1.1 Physical Characteristics

1.7.1.2 Color Tests

1.7.1.3 Thin Layer Chromatography

1.7.2 Confirmatory Chemical Tests

1.7.2.1 Microcrystal Identifications

1.7.2.2 Gas Chromatography

1.7.2.3 High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)

1.7.2.4 Capillary Electrophoresis (CE)

1.7.2.5 Infrared Spectrophotometry (IR)

1.7.2.6 Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectroscopy (GC/MS)

1.7.2.7 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy

1.7.3 Controlled Substances Examinations

1.7.3.1 Identifying and Quantitating Controlled Substances

1.7.3.2 Identifying Adulterants and Diluents

1.7.3.3 Quantitating Controlled Substances

1.7.3.4 Reference Standards

1.8 Comparative Analysis

1.8.1 Determining Commonality of Source

1.8.2 Comparing Heroin Exhibits

1.8.3 Comparing Cocaine Exhibits

1.9 Clandestine Laboratories

1.9.1 Safety Concerns

1.9.2 Commonly Encountered Chemicals in the Clandestine Laboratory

1.9.3 Tables of Controlled Substances

1.9.3.1 Generalized List by Category ofPhysiological Effects and Medical Uses of Controlled Substances

1.9.3.2 Listing of Controlled Substances by Schedule Number

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