3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a ring substituted derivative of metham-phetamine (Figure 188.8.131.52B) that has widespread use as a recreational drug. Self-administration is typically by the oral route in doses of 100 to 150 mg. Helmlin et al.15 reported a mean peak plasma MDMA concentration of 300 ng/mL at 2.3 h after an oral dose of 1.5 mg/kg to adult subjects.
MDMA is metabolized to MDA with 65% of the dose excreted as parent drug within 3 days. Both MDMA and MDA are hydroxylated to mono- and di-hydroxy derivatives and subsequently conjugated before elimination. The plasma half-life has been reported to be
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