References

1. Drugs of Abuse, U.S. Department of Justice, Drug Enforcement Administration, 1989, p. 49.

2. Kilmer, S.D., The isolation and identification of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) from sugar cubes and a liquid substrate, J. Forensic Sci., 39: 860-862, 1994.

3. Feldman, H.W., Agar, M.H., and Beschner, G.M., Eds., Angel Dust, An Ethanographic Study of PCP Users, 1979, p.8.

4. Henderson, G.L., Designer drugs: Past history and future prospects, J. Forensic Sci., 33: 569-575, 1988.

5. Angelos, S.A., Raney, J.K., Skoronski, G.T., and Wagenhofer, R.J., The Identification of Unreacted Precursors, Impurities, and By-Products in Clandestinely Produced Phencyclidine Preparations, J. Forensic Sci., 35: 1297-1302, 1990.

6. Smialek, J.E., Levine, B., Chin, L., Wu, S.C., and Jenkins, A.J., A fentanyl epidemic in Maryland 1992, J. Forensic Sci, 3:159-164, 1994.

8. Henderson, G.L., The fentanyls, American Association for Clinical Chemistry in-Service Training and Continuing Education, 12(2), 5-17, Aug. 1990.

9. Henderson, Designer, p. 570.

10. Riley, R.N. and Bagley, J.R., J. Med. Chem, 22:1167-1171.

11. Cooper, D., Jacob, M., and Allen, A., Identification of Fentanyl Derivatives, J. Forensic Sci., 31: 511-528, 1986.

12. Kram, T.C., Cooper, D.A., and Allen, Behind the identification of China White," Analytical Chem, 53:1379-1386, 1981.

13. Cooper, Identification, p. 513.

14. Mannich, C. and Jacobsohn, W., Hydroxyphenylalkylamines and Dihydroxyphenylalkylamines, Berichte, 43:189-197, 1910.

15. Dal Cason, T.A., The characterization of some 3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl- isopropylamine (MDA) analogues, J. Forensic Sci, 34:928-961, 1989.

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20. Cath edulis (khat): Some Introductory Remarks," Bulletin on Narcotics, 32:1-3, 1980.

21. Lee, M.M., The identification of cathinone in khat (Catha edulis): A time study, J. Forensic Sci., 40:116-121, 1995.

22. Szendrei, K., The chemistry of khat, Bull. Narcotics, 32, 5-34, 1980.

1.4.12 anabolic steroids 14.12.1 Regulatory History

In recent years anabolic steroid abuse has become a significant problem in the U.S. There are two physiological responses associated with anabolic steroids: androgenic activity induces the development of male secondary sex characteristics; anabolic activity promotes the growth of various tissues including muscle and blood cells. The male sex hormone testosterone is the prototype anabolic steroid. Individuals abuse these drugs in an attempt to improve athletic performance or body appearance. The more common agents are shown in Figure 1.4.12.1.

Black market availability of anabolic steroids has provided athletes and bodybuilders with a readily available supply of these drugs. Both human and veterinary steroid preparations are found in the steroid black market. Anabolic steroid preparations are formulated as tablets, capsules, and oil- and water-based injectable preparations. There is also a thriving black market for preparations that are either counterfeits of legitimate steroid preparations, or are simply bogus.

Control of Steroids

In 1990, the U.S. Congress passed the Anabolic Steroid Control Act. This act placed anabolic steroids, along with their salts, esters, and isomers, as a class of drugs, into Schedule III of the

Methyltestosterone Dehydrochloromethyl-testosterone

Methandrostenolone

Figure 1.4.12.1 Common agents.

Methandrostenolone

Figure 1.4.12.1 Common agents.

Federal Controlled Substances Act (CSA). This law provided 27 names of steroids that were specifically defined under the CSA as anabolic steroids. This list, which is provided in the Federal Code of Regulations is reproduced below.

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