Bone Structure

Bone is a complex structure consisting of diverse cell types, extracellular matrix, and mineral. It is a metabolically active tissue in which the coupled processes of formation and resorption are continuous throughout life. Bone matrix is composed predominantly of extensively cross-linked collagen type I but also incorporates many other proteins, including osteocalcin, osteopontin, proteoglycans, and growth factors. The mineral phase consists of poorly crystalline carbonate apatite, containing calcium phosphate in the form of apatite and with extensive carbonate substitution of hydroxyl groups.1 This mineral component provides mechanical strength and rigidity to the skeleton and is sufficiently labile to be easily removed, enabling it to act as an ion store for supporting calcium homeostasis.

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