DA-containing neurons in the VTA that target areas in the limbic region of the brain, especially the NAc and frontal region of the cerebral cortex ( ). In addition, upon chronic drug use leading to addiction, the neuro transmitters involved in regulation of the VTA DA neurons are also affected. As such, glutamatergic receptors, both ionotropic and metabotropic, GABAergic, cholinergic, serotonergic, and noradrenergic input can all be altered.18 Another factor that impacts addictive behavior in humans is drug-induced damage to cortical regions, which normally control executive functions such as decision-making and judgment.19'20

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