Experimental Disease Models

Experimental models of HD include both neurotoxin- and genetic-based models. Peripheral administration of 3-nitropropionic acid causes selective degeneration of striatal neurons and has been used to study mechanisms of neuronal death thought to be associated with HD. Genetic models exist in C. elegans, Drosophila, and mice, all of which are based on the overexpression of various forms of the mutant htt protein containing various lengths of CAG repeats. The first HD model, the Bates or R6/2 model, was developed in the mouse via transgenic expression of the first exon of the protein containing 141-157 GAG repeats. This model has hindlimb behavioral anomalies (e.g., grasping, grooming stereotypies) that occur shortly (5-6 weeks of age) after intraneuronal inclusions are observed (3-4 weeks of age) that precede neuronal degeneration. Other, less well characterized mouse models include a model with an N-terminal htt fragment of 171 amino acids with 82 CAG repeats (N171) and another with yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) containing human genomic DNA spanning the full length of the gene and having 72 repeats (YAC72).

Blood Pressure Health

Blood Pressure Health

Your heart pumps blood throughout your body using a network of tubing called arteries and capillaries which return the blood back to your heart via your veins. Blood pressure is the force of the blood pushing against the walls of your arteries as your heart beats.Learn more...

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