Experimental Disease Models

Models of epilepsy for the evaluation of NCEs include both electrophysiological models using transfected cell lines and brain slices,23'24 Drosophila,25 and animal models, both rodent and nonhuman primate.9'26-29 Convulsions can be induced chemically, electrically, or audiogenically and can be extended to mouse strains with a genetic predisposition to convulse. While a number of animal models of epilepsy exist that reflect different aspects of the epileptic phenotypes seen in humans,26,28 their utility has been debated both in terms of the inevitable relationship to the human form of the disease, e.g., differences in latency,9 ictal, interictal, and postictal behaviors, and also limitations in being only capable of identifying 'me-too' AEDs.28 Animal models can be categorized into models of seizures and those of epilepsy. Thus acute seizure activity without chronic epileptiform behavior, e.g., spontaneous seizures, is not a model of epilepsy.26

A'good' animal model of epilepsy has been defined in terms of six criteria26: (1) the animal should exhibit similar electrophysiological correlates/patterns as the human condition; (2) the etiologies should be similar, reflecting an underlying genetic predisposition, injury, or neuronal migration disorder; (3) the temporal onset of epilepsy should reflect the human condition; (4) the focal lesions and cortical dysplasia seen in the human condition should be mimicked in the animal model; (5) the animal model should respond to the same AEDs shown to be effective in the human situation; and (6) seizure-induced behavioral manifestations and short- or long-term behavioral deficits should be evident. However, most models fall short of achieving these criteria. Nonetheless, a variety of mouse, rat, chicken (Fepi), rabbit, and primate models can be used to characterize NCEs as potential AEDs.26

Blood Pressure Health

Blood Pressure Health

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