Experimental Disease Models

Although studies suggest that renal dysfunction underlies the development of all forms of hypertension in human and experimental animals, most investigators believe that impaired renal function is a consequence of the hypertension rather than the primary basis of the disease. The induction of experimental hypertension and the subsequent renal dysfunction involves a reduction in the ability of kidney to excrete sodium and water at normal level of arterial pressure. This includes numerous animal models such as Goldblatt hypertension (renal artery stenosis), coarctation of the aorta, mineralocorticoid models of hypertension through the administration of aldosterone or DOCA, surgical reduction of renal mass, perinephritic models of hypertension, and chronic infusion of vasoconstrictor substance such as ET-1, AT-II, vasopressin, and epinephrine.52 Impairment of endogenous vasodilatory substances that play an important role in the control of renal function and arterial pressure such as NO, prostaglandin, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), and EETs may induce hypertension and renal dysfunction. Additionally, genetic rat models of hypertension including spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), Dahl salt-sensitive rats, Lyon hypertensive rats, and transgenic renin gene rats can be used as good models of renal dysfunction where the pressure natriuresis response in these models is blunted and reset toward higher pressures.52

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