Hormone Replacement

A W Meikle, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT, USA © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All Rights Reserved.

6.22.1 Disease State/Diagnosis 521

6.22.2 Disease Basis 523

6.22.3 Genetic Disease Models 523

6.22.4 Current Treatment 526

6.22.4.1 Overview of Physiology of Androgens 526

6.22.5 Clinical Trial Issues 527

6.22.5.1 Goal of Androgen Therapy 527

6.22.5.2 Historical Aspects 527

6.22.5.3 Adults 527

6.22.5.4 Prepubertal 528

6.22.5.5 Testosterone Preparations 528

6.22.5.5.1 Intramuscular preparations 528

6.22.5.5.2 Transdermal testosterone 529

6.22.5.5.3 Transscrotal testosterone 530

6.22.5.6 Management of Skin Irritation 531

6.22.5.6.1 Comparison with intramuscular testosterone 531

6.22.5.6.2 Summary of androgen replacement therapy 534

6.22.5.6.3 Potential benefits of androgen therapy 535

6.22.5.6.4 Leptin 536

6.22.5.6.5 Osteoporosis 536

6.22.6 Unmet Medical Needs 536

6.22.6.1 Precautions of Androgen Therapy in Aging Males 536

6.22.6.2 Prostate Disease 537

6.22.6.2.1 Benign prostate enlargement 537

6.22.6.2.2 Prostate cancer 537

6.22.6.3 Other Considerations of Treatment of Androgen Deficiency 537

6.22.7 New Research Areas 538

6.22.8 Selective Androgen Receptor Modulators 538

6.22.8.1 Evidence-Based Approaches 538

6.22.8.1.1 Stimulation of lueteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone 538

References 539

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