I

Periplasm

Inner membrane

Urea

Figure 6 A model of two of the acid acclimation mechanism in H. pylori. The outer membrane contains porins permeable to urea and protons. With acidification, Urel opens and urea moves into the cytoplasm, increasing intrabacterial urease activity. This produces 2NH3 and CO2, gases that readily exit the cell into the periplasm. Protons entering the cytoplasm are neutralized by NH3 forming NH/ while cytoplasmic carbonic anhydrase generates HCO^, which is a stronger buffer at neutral pH than NH3. Similarly, the NH3 that effluxes into the periplasm can neutralize entering acidity and the CO2 due to periplasmic carbonic

Outer membrane

Inner membrane

Urea

Figure 6 A model of two of the acid acclimation mechanism in H. pylori. The outer membrane contains porins permeable to urea and protons. With acidification, Urel opens and urea moves into the cytoplasm, increasing intrabacterial urease activity. This produces 2NH3 and CO2, gases that readily exit the cell into the periplasm. Protons entering the cytoplasm are neutralized by NH3 forming NH/ while cytoplasmic carbonic anhydrase generates HCO^, which is a stronger buffer at neutral pH than NH3. Similarly, the NH3 that effluxes into the periplasm can neutralize entering acidity and the CO2 due to periplasmic carbonic anhydrase activity producing H + range of pH 6.1.

and HCO3; a second NH/ is formed along with HCO3, the latter providing buffering in the

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