Several models of fear/anxiety can be used in primates,70 one being the human threat test in marmosets. When confronted by a human observer, marmosets exhibit body movements towards the threatening stimulus including tail postures (elevation of tail to expose genital region), slit stares (flattened ear tufts and partial eye closure), scent marking of cage surfaces, and arching of the back with associated piloerection. They also tend to spend less time at the front of their home cage. Diazepam antagonizes these behaviors and increases the amount of time spent in the front of the home cage in the presence of the human observer. 5HT1A agonists (e.g., buspirone) and nonpeptide NK2 tachykinin receptor antagonists also antagonize these responses and cause an increase in the time spent in the front of the home cage.70
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