Mechanisms of action

The specific mechanisms of action of metformin have not been definitively demonstrated. In the liver, metformin increases insulin-dependent suppression of gluconeogenesis and decreases the glucagon-dependent stimulation of gluconeogenesis, resulting in an overall decrease in hepatic glucose production. Animal models suggest additional mechanisms of action for metformin, including insulin-dependent glucose uptake by muscle61 and adipose tissue,62 with resultant increases in glycogen formation, glucose oxidation, and lipogenesis. De Fronzo et al.63 demonstrated that, in humans, improvement in fasting blood glucose on metformin results from reduction in basal hepatic glucose production. In studies using the glucose/insulin clamp techniques metformin did not improve whole-body insulin sensitivity in individuals with T2DM. Since the glucose-lowering effect of metformin occurs without stimulation of insulin secretion, metformin is not associated with hypoglycemia when used as monotherapy.

Diabetes 2

Diabetes 2

Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...

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