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(fMRI) and nerve conduction velocity assessments to further enhance measurements of drug action.38 For example, in assessing the acute antinociceptive effects of remifentanyl, the apparent sensitivity of fMRI analysis of human cortical oxygen utilization was significantly greater than patient's subjective ratings using traditional VAS scales. The use of fMRI coupled with experimental pain models like the capsaicin-evoked secondary hyperalgesia model may provide a reliable early assessment of novel analgesic efficacy. Many of these techniques have received clinical validation using opioids and are now being used to characterize mechanistically novel therapeutics.

Table 1 Effects of clinically used analgesics in preclinical models of acute, nociceptive, and neuropathic pain; relative analgesic efficacy of clinically useful analgesics in experimental pain models in the absence of psychomotor side effects. Data derived from both in house and literature values (see text)

Acute pain Nociceptive pain Neuropathic pain

Table 1 Effects of clinically used analgesics in preclinical models of acute, nociceptive, and neuropathic pain; relative analgesic efficacy of clinically useful analgesics in experimental pain models in the absence of psychomotor side effects. Data derived from both in house and literature values (see text)

Acute pain Nociceptive pain Neuropathic pain

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