N Pullen and J D Gale Pfizer Global Research and Development Sandwich UK 2007 Elsevier Ltd All Rights Reserved

6.28.1 Disease State 613

6.28.2 Diagnosis 614

6.28.3 Disease Basis: Genetic and Environmental Triggers 615

6.28.4 Experimental Disease Models 618

6.28.5 Clinical Trial Issues 618 Patient Selection 619 Assessing Disease Activity 619 Quality of Life 620 Use of Biomarkers 620 Other Considerations 621

6.28.6 Current Treatment 621

6.28.7 Unmet Medical Need 623

6.28.8 New Research Areas 624 Re-Establishing Mucosal Tolerance: Probiotics, Prebiotics, Worms, and

Toll-Like Receptor Modulators 624 Anti-Inflammatory Approaches 625 Phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4) inhibitors 625 IkB kinase inhibitors 626 p38 kinase inhibitors 627 Interleukin-1 b converting enzyme (ICE) inhibitors 628 Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors 628 Cannabinoid receptor agonists/fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitors 629 Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)/retinoid X receptor (RXR)

agonists 630 Targeting Lymphocyte Extravasation 631 Integrin receptor antagonists 632 Chemokine receptor antagonists 633 Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor modulators 636 Miscellaneous Mechanisms 637 Macrophage migration inhibitory factor antagonists 637 TRPV1 antagonists 637 References 638

Dealing With Back Pain

Dealing With Back Pain

Deal With Your Pain, Lead A Wonderful Life An Live Like A 'Normal' Person. Before I really start telling you anything about me or finding out anything about you, I want you to know that I sympathize with you. Not only is it one of the most painful experiences to have backpain. Not only is it the number one excuse for employees not coming into work. But perhaps just as significantly, it is something that I suffered from for years.

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