N Pullen and J D Gale Pfizer Global Research and Development Sandwich UK 2007 Elsevier Ltd All Rights Reserved

6.28.1 Disease State 613

6.28.2 Diagnosis 614

6.28.3 Disease Basis: Genetic and Environmental Triggers 615

6.28.4 Experimental Disease Models 618

6.28.5 Clinical Trial Issues 618

6.28.5.1 Patient Selection 619

6.28.5.2 Assessing Disease Activity 619

6.28.5.3 Quality of Life 620

6.28.5.4 Use of Biomarkers 620

6.28.5.5 Other Considerations 621

6.28.6 Current Treatment 621

6.28.7 Unmet Medical Need 623

6.28.8 New Research Areas 624

6.28.8.1 Re-Establishing Mucosal Tolerance: Probiotics, Prebiotics, Worms, and

Toll-Like Receptor Modulators 624

6.28.8.2 Anti-Inflammatory Approaches 625

6.28.8.2.1 Phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4) inhibitors 625

6.28.8.2.2 IkB kinase inhibitors 626

6.28.8.2.3 p38 kinase inhibitors 627

6.28.8.2.4 Interleukin-1 b converting enzyme (ICE) inhibitors 628

6.28.8.2.5 Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors 628

6.28.8.2.6 Cannabinoid receptor agonists/fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitors 629

6.28.8.2.7 Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)/retinoid X receptor (RXR)

agonists 630

6.28.8.3 Targeting Lymphocyte Extravasation 631

6.28.8.3.1 Integrin receptor antagonists 632

6.28.8.3.2 Chemokine receptor antagonists 633

6.28.8.3.3 Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor modulators 636

6.28.8.4 Miscellaneous Mechanisms 637

6.28.8.4.1 Macrophage migration inhibitory factor antagonists 637

6.28.8.4.2 TRPV1 antagonists 637 References 638

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