Structural and functional neuroimaging studies have been used to investigate the human neuroanatomy and neurocircuitry of specific anxiety disorders.11'15 Structural neuroimaging techniques include morphometric magnetic resonance imaging (mMRI), which allows for accurate assessment of brain structure volumes, and magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging, which allows for determination of white matter tract orientations. Functional imaging techniques focus on acquisition of data that reflect regional brain activity. These include positron emission tomography (PET) with tracers that measure blood flow (15O-carbon dioxide or water) or glucose metabolism (18F-fluorodeoxyglucose), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with tracers that measure correlates of blood flow, and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), which measures blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal changes. Functional imaging studies can be performed using several paradigms.11 Neutral state paradigms image subjects in a resting state while performing a nonspecific continuous task, symptom provocation paradigms image subjects in a neutral state and then again when an anxious state is induced behaviorally or pharmacologically, and cognitive activation paradigms image subjects while performing cognitive tasks.

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Free Yourself from Panic Attacks

Free Yourself from Panic Attacks

With all the stresses and strains of modern living, panic attacks are become a common problem for many people. Panic attacks occur when the pressure we are living under starts to creep up and overwhelm us. Often it's a result of running on the treadmill of life and forgetting to watch the signs and symptoms of the effects of excessive stress on our bodies. Thankfully panic attacks are very treatable. Often it is just a matter of learning to recognize the symptoms and learn simple but effective techniques that help you release yourself from the crippling effects a panic attack can bring.

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