With the availability of human insulin, use of animal insulin declined dramatically. Currently, the biosynthesis of human insulin involves insertion of the human proinsulin gene into either Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's yeast) or a nonpathogenic laboratory strain of Escherichia coli, which serve as the production organism. Human insulin is then isolated and purified.
Sophisticated knowledge of the structure-function aspects of insulin has led to the development and production of analogs to human insulin. The molecular structure of insulin has been modified slightly to alter the pharmacokinetic properties of insulin, primarily affecting absorption from subcutaneous tissue. The B26-B30 region of the insulin molecule is not critical for insulin receptor recognition and it is in this region that amino acids have been substituted74 (Figure 8). Thus, the insulin analogs are recognized by the insulin receptor and bind to the receptor with similar affinity as native insulin.
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All you need is a proper diet of fresh fruits and vegetables and get plenty of exercise and you'll be fine. Ever heard those words from your doctor? If that's all heshe recommends then you're missing out an important ingredient for health that he's not telling you. Fact is that you can adhere to the strictest diet, watch everything you eat and get the exercise of amarathon runner and still come down with diabetic complications. Diet, exercise and standard drug treatments simply aren't enough to help keep your diabetes under control.