Summary

In summary, obesity, diabetes, and hypertension are the most common risk factors for the progression of end-stage renal disease. Due to the vast increase in the incidence of renal disease, future efforts should focus on reducing the prevalence of these risk factors and preventing the progression of renal dysfunction. Many factors seem to be involved in the progression of renal dysfunction such as the sympathetic nervous system, RAS, ET, inflammatory cytokines, ROS, impaired NO signaling, and cytochrome P450 metabolites. Although current antihypertensive drugs slow the progression of renal dysfunction associated with diabetes, obesity, and hypertension, future studies need to focus more on the potential new drugs such as antioxidants, ET receptor antagonists, sEH inhibitors, EET mimetics, and 20-HETE inhibitors that may play a role in preventing renal dysfunction, and/or improving the effects of the traditional antihypertensive drugs.

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