Drug Resistance and its Clinical Circumvention

Drug resistance is the most significant reason for treatment failure in cancer and there are several underlying causes for this phenomenon. Perhaps the most well-defined and researched factor is the presence of ABC transporters, including: P-glycoprotein (P-gp), the product of the MDR1 gene; the MRP or ABCC transporter subfamily; ABCG2, a mitox-antrone transporter (also known as the breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP); the ABC transporter in placenta (ABCP); and mitoxantrone-resistance gene (MXR) (Table 2).

An understanding of other methods of tumor escape from sensitivity to cytotoxicity has resulted in opportunities for new drugs such as inhibitors of the Bcl-2 family proteins, inhibitors of p53/mdm2 interactions, proteasome family proteins, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP).46,60-62 Bortezomib (Velcade: Millennium Pharmaceuticals) is an approved proteasome inhibitor that blocks nuclear factor kB (NFkB) by inhibiting the 26S proteasome and preventing IkB degradation, thereby preventing the activation of NFkB. Velcade has shown a significant effect on myeloma in clinical trials both in survival and the significant reduction of the M protein, a biomarker for myeloma. Velcade is also being tested in clinical trials to overcome cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer.63

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10 Ways To Fight Off Cancer

10 Ways To Fight Off Cancer

Learning About 10 Ways Fight Off Cancer Can Have Amazing Benefits For Your Life The Best Tips On How To Keep This Killer At Bay Discovering that you or a loved one has cancer can be utterly terrifying. All the same, once you comprehend the causes of cancer and learn how to reverse those causes, you or your loved one may have more than a fighting chance of beating out cancer.

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