Types of Biomarkers

The concept of biological markers of disease is both old and new. Historically, markers for disease have been used to diagnose and monitor disease risk, progression, improvement, and severity.67 Examples are clinical chemistry for many disease states, histological markers such as Papanicolaou smears for cervical cancer, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for multiple sclerosis, as well as serum markers associated with cancer states, i.e., prostate-specific antigen (PSA), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and cancer antigen-125 (CA-125).29,65,68-73 Markers that can be assessed from blood and/or urine samples are very reliable in determining the clinical status of the disease. In most references, the definitions of biomarkers and its categories are often used interchangeably, but for clarity, the functional categories of biomarkers will be used in this discussion (Figure 3).64,65,67,74 Biomarkers can be categorized as disease biomarkers

Table 2 Chemotherapy substrates of 11 ABC transporters

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