Ceramide Activation of NFkB and Protection against Apoptosis

NF-kB is an inducible transcription factor classically implicated in the regulation of inflammatory response genes.106 NF-kB is activated by numerous stimuli including amyloid-beta peptides,107 reactive oxygen species,106,107 TNF,108 chemotherapeutic agents,20 NGF109 and ceramide.2,47,109 Intriguingly, the activation of NF-kB may elicit both apoptotic and antiapoptotic responses in neurons vs. glial cells.107,110-112 For example, activation of NF-kB in glial cells may be involved in apoptosis...

Apoptosis References

Adamson, D.C., Dawson, T.M., Zinc, M.C., Clements, J.E., and Dawson, V.L. 1996a. Neurovirulent simian immunodeficiency virus infection induces neuronal, endothelial, and glial apoptosis. Mol. Med. 2(4) 417-428. 2. Adamson, D.C., Wildemann, B., Sasaki, M., Glass, J.D., McArthur, J.C., Christov, V.I., Dawson, T.M., and Dawson, V.L. 1996b. Immunologic NO synthase elevation in severe AIDS dementia and induction by HIV-1 gp41. Science. 274 1917-1921. 3. Adle-Biassette, H., Levy, Y., Colombel, M.,...

References On Apoptosis

Lindenboim, L., Haviv, R., Stein, R., Inhibition of drug-induced apoptosis by survival factors in PC12 cells, JNeurochem, 64, 1054, 1995. 2. Savill, J., Apoptosis in disease, EurJClinlnvest, 24, 715, 1994. 3. Ameisen, J. C., Programmed cell death (apoptosis) and cell survival regulation relevance to AIDS and cancer, AIDS, 8, 1197, 1994. 4. Hartsell, T. L., Hinman, L. M., Hamann, P. R., Schor, N. F., Determinants of the response of neuroblastoma cells to DNA damage the roles of pre-treatment...

Harris A Gelbard

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 HIV-1 is a member of the lentiviral family that includes simian immunodeficiency virus, visna virus, and feline immunodeficiency virus. All lentivirus infections are characterized by multiorgan disease, including infection and inflammation of brain tissue to varying degrees. Current estimates suggest there are approximately 21.8 million individuals worldwide infected with HIV-1, and of this group, at least one million are children. Furthermore,...

Deafferentation

Deafferentation of adult or mature neurons can clearly be a cause of apoptosis for many classes of neurons.22 The significant issue for neurodegenerative illness is the response of the nervous system to two common events during aging denervation of a neuron from its target cells or tissue, and activation of the immune-competent glial cells from systemic factors or acquired illness. In the first case, it is very clear that many neurons are dependent on trophic factors from their innervated...