Apoptosis References

1. Adamson, D.C., Dawson, T.M., Zinc, M.C., Clements, J.E., and Dawson, V.L. 1996a. Neurovirulent simian immunodeficiency virus infection induces neuronal, endothelial, and glial apoptosis. Mol. Med. 2(4):417-428.

2. Adamson, D.C., Wildemann, B., Sasaki, M., Glass, J.D., McArthur, J.C., Christov, V.I., Dawson, T.M., and Dawson, V.L. 1996b. Immunologic NO synthase: elevation in severe AIDS dementia and induction by HIV-1 gp41. Science. 274:1917-1921.

3. Adle-Biassette, H., Levy, Y., Colombel, M., Poron, F., Natchev, S., Keohane, C., and Gray, F. 1995. Neuronal apoptosis in HIV infection in adults. Neuropathol. Appl. Neurobiol., 21:218-227.

4. Ameisen, J.C. and Capron, A. 1990. Cell dysfunction and depletion in AIDS: the programmed cell death hypothesis. Immunol. Today. 12:102-104.

5. An, S.F., Giometto, B., Scaravilli, T., Tavolato, B., Gray, F., and Scaravilli, F. 1996. Programmed cell death in brains of HIV-1 positive AIDS and pre-AIDS individuals. Acta Neuropathol. 91:169-173.

6. Benos, D.J., Hahn, B.H., Bubien, J.K., Ghosh, S.K., Mashburn, N.A., Chaikin, M.A., Shaw, G.M., and Benveniste, E.N. 1994. Envelope glycoprotein gp120 of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 alter ion transport in astroctyes: implications for AIDS dementia complex. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 91:494-498.

7. Bonfoco, E., Krainc, D., Ankarcrona, M., Nicotera, P., and Lipton, S.A. 1995. Apoptosis and necrosis: two distinct events induced, respectively, by mild and intense insults with N-methyl-D-aspartate or nitric oxide/superoxide in cortical cell cultures. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 92:7162-7166.

8. Brooke, S., Chan, R., Howard, S., and Sapolsky, R. 1997. Endocrine modulation of the neurotoxicity of gp120: implications for AIDS-related dementia complex. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 94:9457-9462.

9. Chao, C.C. and Hu, S. 1994. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha potentiates glutamate neurotoxicity in human fetal brain cell cultures. Dev. Neurosci. 16:172-179.

10. Chinnaiyan, A.M., Woffendin, C., Dixit, V.M., and Nabel, G.J. 1997. The inhibition of pro-apoptotic ICE-like proteases enhances HIV replication. Nature Med. 3:333-337.

11. Dzenko K.A., Perry S.W., James H., Angel R.A., Epstein L.G., Whittaker S., Dewhurst S., and Gelbard, H.A. 1996. Tumor necrosis factor alpha and ceram-ide activate platelet activating factor receptors to induce neuronal apoptosis. Soc. Neurosci. Abstr. 22(3): 1917.

12. Everall, I.P., P.J. Luthbert, and Lantos, P.L. 1991. Neuronal loss in the frontal cortex in HIV infection. Lancet 337:1119-1121.

13. Everall, I.P., Glass, J.D., McArthur, J., Spargo, E., and Lantos, P. 1994. Neuronal density in the superior frontal and temporal gyri does not correlate with the degree of human immunodeficiency virus-associated dementia. Acta Neuro-pathol. 88:538-544.

14. Fine, S.M., Angel, R.A., Perry, S.W., Epstein, L.G., Dewhurst, S., and Gelbard., H.A. 1996. Tumor necrosis factor a inhibits glutamate uptake by primary human astrocytes: implications for pathogenesis of HIV-1 dementia. J. Biol. Chem., 271(26):15303-15306.

15. Gavrieli, Y., Sherman, Y., and Ben-Sasson, S.A. 1992. Identification of programmed cell death in situ via specific labeling of nuclear DNA fragmentation. J. Cell Biol. 119:493-501.

16. Gelbard H.A., Dzenko K., DiLoreto D., del Cerro C., del Cerro M., and Epstein, L.G. 1993. Neurotoxic effects of tumor necrosis factor in primary human neuronal cultures are mediated by activation of the glutamate AMPA receptor subtype: implications for AIDS neuropathogenesis. Dev. Neurosci. 15:417-422.

17. Gelbard H.A., Nottet H.S.L.M., Swindells S., Jett M., Dzenko K.A., Genis P., White R., Wang L., Choi Y.-B., Zhang D., Lipton S.A., Tourtellotte W. W., Epstein L.G., and Gendelman, H.E. 1994. Platelet activating factor: a candidate HIV-1-Induced neurotoxin. J. Virol. 68:4628-4635.

18. Gelbard H.A., James H., Sharer L., Perry S.W., Saito, Y., Kazee, A.M., Blumberg B.M., and Epstein, L.G. 1995. Identification of apoptotic neurons in postmortem brain tissue with HIV-1 encephalitis and progressive encephalopathy. Neuro-pathol. Appl. Neurobiol, 21:208-217.

19. Gelbard, H.A., Boustany, R-M., and Schor, N.F. 1997. Apoptosis in development and disease of the nervous system. 2: Apoptosis in childhood neurologic disease. Ped. Neurol. 16:93-97.

Genis, P., Jett, M., Bernton, E.W., Gelbard, H.A., Dzenko, K., Keane, R., Resnick, L., Volsky, D.J., Epstein, L.G., and Gendelman, H.E. 1992. Cytokines and arachi-donic acid metabolites produced during HIV-infected macrophage-astroglial interactions: implications for the neuropathogenesis of HIV disease. J. Exp. Med. 176:1703-1718.

Giulian, D., Wendt, E., Vaca, K., and Noonan, C.A. 1993a. The envelope glyco-protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 stimulates release of neurotoxins from monocytes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 90: 2769-2773. Giulian, D., Vaca, K., and Corpuz, M. 1993b. Brain glia release factors with opposing actions upon neuronal survival. J. Neurosci. 13:29-37. Giulian, D., Yu, J.H., Li, X., Tom, D., Wendt, E., Lin, S.N., Schwarcz, R., and Noonan, C. 1996. Study of receptor-mediated neurotoxins released by HIV-1 infected mononuclear phagocytes found in human brain. J. Neurosci. 16:3139-3153.

Groux, H., Monte, D., Bourez, J.M., Capron, A., and Ameisen, J.C. 1992. Activation-induced death by apoptosis in CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected asymptomatic individuals. J. Exp. Med. 175:331-340.

He, J., deCastro, C.M., Vandenbark, G.R., Busciglio, J., and Gabuzda, D. 1997. Astrocyte apoptosis induced by HIV-1 transactivation of the c-kit protoonco-gene. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 94:3954-3959.

Janssen, R.S., Nwanyanwu, O.C., Selik, R.M. and Stehr-Green, J.K. 1992. Epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus encephalopathy in the United States. Neurology 42:1472-1476.

Ketzler, S., Weis, S. Haug, H. and Budka, H. 1990. Loss of neurons in the frontal cortex in AIDS brains. Acta Neuropathol. 80:92-94.

Koka, P., He, K., Zack, J.A., Kitchen, S., Peacock, W., Fried, I., Tran, T., Yashar, S.S., and Merrill, J.E. 1995. Human immunodeficiency virus 1 envelope proteins induce interleukin 1, tumor necrosis factor alpha, nitric oxide in glial cultures derived from fetal, neonatal and adult human brain. J. Exp. Med. 182:941-952. Krajewski, S., James, H.J., Ross, J., Blumberg, B.M., Epstein, L.G., Gendelman, H.E., Gummuluru, S., Dewhurst, S., Sharer, L.R., Reed, J.C., and Gelbard, H.A. 1997. Expression of pro- and anti-apoptosis gene products in brains from pediatric patients with HIV-1 encephalitis. Neuropathol. Appl. Neurobiol. 23:242-253. Lipton, S.A. 1993. Human immunodeficiency virus-infected macrophages, gp120, and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-mediated neurotoxicity. Ann. Neu-rol. 33:227-228.

Luthert, P.J., Montgomery, M.M., Dean, A.F., Cook, R.W., Baskerville, A., and Lantos, P.L. 1995. Hippocampal neuronal atrophy occurs in rhesus macaques following infection with simian immunodeficiency virus. Neuropathol. Appl. Neurobiol. 21:529-534.

Macho, A., Castedo, M., Marchetti, P., Aguilar, J.J., Decaudin, D., Zamzami, N., Girard, P.M., Uriel, J., and Kroemer, G. 1995. Mitochondrial dysfunctions in circulating T lymphocytes from human immunodeficiency virus-1 carriers. Blood. 7:2481-2487.

Magnuson, D.S.K., Knudsen, B.E., Geiger, J.D., Brownstone, R.M., and Nath., A. 1995. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat activates non-N-methy-D-aspartate excitatory amino acid receptors and causes neurotoxicity. Ann. Neurol. 37:373-380.

34. McArthur, J.C., Hoover, D.R., Bacellar, H., Miller, E.N., Cohen, B.A., Becker, J.T., Graham, N.M.H., McArthur, J.H., Selnes, O.A., Jacobson, L.P., Visscher, B.R., Concha, M., and Saah, A. 1993. Dementia in AIDS patients: incidence and risk factors. Neurology 43:2245-2252.

35. Mori, M., Aihara, M., Kume, K., Hamanoue, M., Kohsaka, S., and Shimizu, T. 1996. Predominant expression of platelet-activating factor receptor in the rat brain microglia. J. Neurosci. 16:3590-3600.

36. Muller, W.E.G., Schroder, H.C., Ushijima, H., Dapper, J., and Bormann, J. 1992. gp120 of HIV-1 induces apoptosis in rat cortical cell cultures: prevention by memantine. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 226:209-214.

37. Nath, A., Psooy, K., Martin, C., Knudsen, B., Magnuson, D.S.K., Haughey, D., and Geiger, J.D. 1996. Identification of a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat epitope that is neuroexcitatory and neurotoxic. J. Virol. 70:1475-1480.

38. Neuen-Jacob, E., Arendt, G., von Giesen, H.-J., and Wechsler, W. 1996. Neuronal cell apoptosis in the basal ganglia occurs early in the course of HIV encephalitis and may precede the clinical signs of HIV-1 associated dementia. Neuropathol. Appl. Neurobiol. 22:Suppl. 1:16-17.

39. New, D.R., Ma, M., Epstein, L.G., Nath, A. and Gelbard, H.A. 1997. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat protein induces death by apoptosis in primary human neuron cultures. J. Neurovirol. 3:168-173.

40. Nottet, H.S.L.M., Jett, M., Flanagan, C.R., Zhai, Q.-H., Persidsky, Y., Rizzino, A., Bernton, E.W., Genis, P., Baldwin, T., Schwartz, J., LaBenz, C.J., and Gen-delman, H.E. 1995. A regulatory role for astrocytes in HIV-1 encephalitis. J. Immunol. 154:3567-3581.

41. Nottet, H.S.L.M., Flanagan, E.M., Flanagan, C.R., Gelbard, H.A., Gendelman, H.E., and Reinhard, Jr. J.F. 1996. The regulation of quinolinic acid in human immunodeficiency virus-infected monocytes. J. Neurovirol. 2:111-117.

42. Nuovo, G.J., Galtery, F., MacConnell, P., and Braun, A. 1994. In situ detection of polymerase chain reaction-amplified HIV-1 nucleic acids and tumor necrosis factor-a RNA in the central nervous system. Am. J. Pathol. 144:659-666.

43. Oltvai, Z.N. and Korsmeyer, S.J. 1994. Checkpoints of dueling dimers foil death wishes. Cell. 79:189-192.

44. Persidsky, Y., Limoges, J., McComb, R., Bock, P., Baldwin, T., Tyor, W., Patil, A., Nottet, H.S.L.M., Epstein, L., Gelbard, H., Flanagan, E., Reinhard, S.J., and Gendelman, H.E. 1996. A quantitative analysis of brain immunopathology in SCID mice with HIV-1 encephalitis. Am. J. Pathol. 149:1027-1053.

45. Petito, C.K. and Roberts, B. 1995. Evidence of apoptotic cell death in HIV encephalitis. Am. J. Pathol. 146:1121-1130.

46. Ranki, A., Nyberg, M., Ovod, V., Matti, H., Elovaara, I., Raininko, R., Haapasalo, H., and Krohn, K. 1995. Abundant expression of HIV Nef and Rev proteins in brain astrocytes in vivo is associated with dementia. AIDS. 9:1001-1008.

47. Saito, Y., Sharer, L.R., Epstein, L.G., Michaels, J., Mintz, M., Louder, M., Golding, K., Cvetkovich, T.A., and Blumberg, B.M. 1994. Overexpression of nef as a marker for restricted HIV-1 infection of astrocytes in postmortem pediatric central nervous tissues. Neurology. 44:474-480.

48. Sharer, L.R., Epstein, L.G., Cho, E.-S., Joshi, V.V., Meyenhofer, M.F., Rankin, L.F., and Petito, C.K. 1986. Pathologic features of AIDS encephalopathy in children: Evidence for LAV/HTLV-III infection of brain. Hum. Pathol. 17:271-284.

49. Sharer, L.R. 1992. Pathology of HIV-1 infection of the central nervous system (Review). J. Neuropath. Exp. Neurol. 51:3-11.

50. Takahashi, K., Wesselingh, S.L., Griffin, D.E., McArthur, J.C., Johnson, R.T., and Glass, J.D. 1996. Localization of HIV-1 in human brain using polymerase chain reaction/in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Ann. Neurol. 39:705-711.

51. Talley A., Dewhurst S., Perry S., Gummuluru S., Dollard, S.C., Fine, S.M., New, D., Epstein L.G., Gendelman, H.E., and Gelbard, H.A. 1995. Tumor necrosis factor alpha induces apoptosis in human neuronal cells: protection by the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine and the genes bcl-2 and crmA. Mol. Cell Biol. 15:2359-2366.

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