How to Mix Essential Oils
Lesser calamint grows south of the Alps and is sometimes referred to as having magic aromatizing properties. Lesser calamint is the most important aromatic wild herb in central Italian cookery, and is used for cooking wild mushrooms (especially Boletus edulis) and cultivated zucchini. In Basilicata (southern Italy) lesser calamint is added to rennet during the making of a goat's cheese called casieddu, characterized by its unique wild mint taste derived from the essential oils of Cala-mintha nepeta.
Aromatherapy has not been systematically studied in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). A small preliminary study of two people with MS reported that a treatment program of aromatherapy and massage led to improvement in mobility, dressing ability, and personal hygiene (1). Studies of olfaction in MS indicate that 10 to 20 percent of people with the disease have an impaired sense of smell. Only a limited number of studies detail the effects of aromatherapy on any medical condition, and those that do exist are generally of low quality. Many of the therapeutic claims about aromatherapy are based on tradition, not on actual clinical research. Symptoms of MS that have been investigated in some aromatherapy research are anxiety, depression, pain, and insomnia. For anxiety, studies of variable quality indicate that beneficial effects may be obtained with the use of lavender oil, Roman chamomile oil, and neroli (orange) oil. However, no large, well-designed clinical studies have examined...
Aromatherapy may be obtained from a practitioner or may be self-administered. It is sometimes combined with herbal medicine or traditional Chinese medicine. Aromatherapy may be provided on an individual basis or as informational classes. Individual sessions typically cost 60 to 80 and last about 60 minutes. Classes cost about 30 for 60 to 120 minutes. More information on aromatherapy and aromatherapists may be obtained from American Alliance of Aromatherapy, PO. Box 309, Depoe Bay OR 93741 (800-809-9850) Aromatherapy Registration Council (ARC) (www.aromatherapy-council.org) National Association for Holistic Aromatherapy (NAHA) (www.naha.org), 3327 W. Indian Trail Road PMB 144, Spokane WA 99208 (509-325-3419)
Aromatherapy art, science, or myth In Weintraub MI, Micozzi M, eds. Alternative and Complementary Treatment in Neurologic Illness. Philadelphia Churchill Livingstone, 2001, pp. 128-150. Kowalak JP, Mills EJ, eds. Professional Guide to Complementary and Alternative Checkmark Books. 2005, pp.8-10. Vickers A. Massage and Aromatherapy A Guide for Health Professionals. London Chapman & Hall, 1996. Howarth AL. Will aromatherapy be a useful treatment strategy for people with multiple sclerosis who experience pain Compl Ther Nurs Midwifery 2002 8 138-141.
Essential oils of nutmeg and mace differ slightly in chemical composition. Nutmeg has a sweeter, more delicate flavor than mace. Both contain myristicin, which causes fatty degeneration of the liver (two nutmegs are reputedly a lethal dose) and is supposedly hallucinogenic. (In the 1960s it was standard practice to ban nutmeg from kitchens of federal prisons lest the inmates abuse it, after inmates at the New Jersey State Prison, Trenton, were used in testing its psychotropic action in 1960). Industrial use of nutmeg and mace has increased with growth in markets for prepared foods, sauces, pickles, and chutneys, leading to increased use of extracted oleoresins rather than the intact spices. Nutmeg oil is also used in the food industry, in beverages such as Coca-Cola, in perfumes and aerosols, and in inhalants such as Vick. The fleshy fruit wall is candied and sold as a sweetmeat in Indonesia and Malaysia.
Camellia has eighty-two species, yet only one has a dominant role in various cultures and has risen to dominate worldwide beverage markets. Camellia sinensis is an evergreen shrub or tree, kept artificially small by the harvesting and plucking of top, terminal leaf shoots. These leaves, variously processed, contain caffeine (1 to 5 percent) and traces of theophylline, theobromine, and other xanthine alkaloids however, it is the essential oils that are responsible for the flavors. Polyphenols (5 to 27 percent) are responsible for the dark brown tannin color.
The female flowers of the hop plant are the most widely used flavoring agent in beer, in which it is important both for the bitter resins that balance the sweet taste of malt, and for the essential oils that enhance the aroma. The hop plant is dioecious that is, the male and female flowers are borne on separate plants. The female flowers are borne in dense cone-like clusters. Each cone contains numerous leaf-like bracteoles, and at the base of each bracteole there are many small lupulin glands containing resins and essential oils. The resins are responsible for the bitterness of hops, and are made up of a number of alpha and beta acids, including humulone and lupulone. The essential oils contribute to the aroma of the beer. Hops also have antimicrobial, preservative qualities, and the better traveling and keeping qualities of hopped beer were an important factor in its displacement of sweet gale as a flavoring agent.
The roots, when grated, yield a volatile oil which is very pungent. Its pungent taste is due to the volatile essential oils similar to those of mustard, which are lost in cooking. The peeled and grated roots are used fresh to make a hot, spicy sauce by mixing with salt, vinegar, and oil and are eaten with meat and fish dishes. In Britain it is most famously served with roast beef. The leaves are used medicinally. The hot, flavored young leaves are one of the bitter herbs used for the Jewish Passover.
True lavender oil is obtained from L. angustifolia, and ranks alongside citrus, rose, and mint oils as one of the most important essential oils in trade, with an annual production worldwide of 250 tons, mostly from France and Bulgaria. It is used in luxury perfumery, whereas the somewhat harsher lavandin oil, from L. x intermedia, is used in cheaper cosmetics and soaps and as a food additive. These and other species such as L. stoechas are also grown as a source of dried leaves and flowers, for use in potpourri and aromatic sachets.
Mint oils are the most important of all essential oils in terms of value in world trade, with most production coming from cornmint (Mentha arvensis), peppermint (M. x piperita, a hybrid of M. aquatica and M. spicata), and spearmint (M. spicata from south and central Europe). Spearmint was introduced to western European gardens in Roman times, and is well documented as a Medieval garden plant. All three species are important culinary and medicinal herbs, as well as major sources of essential oil. Cornmint, native to Europe and North Asia, is the most widely cultivated species, with oil production concentrated in China, Brazil, and India. The essential oils are used in a wide range of products, such as ointments and cough lozenges, as flavorings, and in perfumes.
Sandalwood oil is used in high-quality perfumery, and in today's aromatherapy it is thought to improve self-esteem. It is used in high-value soaps and incense, and the wood is still used for inlay and high-value woodcarving and to scent the funeral pyres of members of the highest castes of India. In parts of Tamil Nadu and Karnataka, it has become an endangered species although harvesting is government-controlled, supplies are also stockpiled by bandits in order to control the price.
This species of Citrus is native to tropical Southeast Asia, but is now grown throughout Southeast Asia, Central America, and the Mascarene and Hawaiian Islands for its leaves and fruit juice, which are used as a flavoring. The leaves are a more common ingredient in Southeast Asian dishes and are particularly ubiquitous in Thai cuisine. It is usual to tear the lime leaves before adding them to the cooking pot and to remove them once the dish is cooked. The leaves are used both fresh and dried in soups, curries, sauces, and gravies. Usually sold fresh in the native countries, dried whole and powdered leaves of makrut lime can also be found in Asian and western supermarkets. The dried or candied peels and the juice of the fruits also serve as a flavoring, and essential oils obtained from the leaves and fruit peel are utilized in the cosmetics industry.
When cut, all cedarwood gives off a strong, attractive fragrance and is distilled for both aromatherapy and air freshener products. The wood is light brown with prominent growth ring figuring. Both Lebanon and Atlas cedars tend to be knotty, but Deodar has a straight, even grain. Cedar-wood dries easily, but with some distortion. It is not a particularly strong wood, but is incredibly durable and can be polished to a good finish. The aromatic components give excellent protection against insect and fungal attack. Selected logs are used for furniture, interior joinery, and door frames otherwise, its uses tend to be limited to more decorative work including veneers for cabinets and paneling.
Aromatherapy is based primarily on the use of essential oils. These oils, which are of high quality and purity, are obtained from plants using a specialized distillation process or by cold pressing. More than 40 different essential oils are used. They may be used individually or as mixtures, and they are administered by direct application to the skin, mixing with bath water, or inhalation. Oils sometimes are applied to the skin by massage. In France, oils are sometimes taken internally by mouth or by the vagina or rectum. However, in general, oils should not be taken internally.
Aromatherapy usually is well tolerated, but it is not risk-free. When applied to the skin, some oils may produce a skin rash (this type of allergic reaction may be detected by applying a small amount of oil to the skin and monitoring for a response for 24 hours). Cinnamon or clove oil should not be applied directly to the skin. Basil, fennel, lemon grass, rosemary, and verbena oils may cause skin irritation the use of these oils should be discontinued if skin irritation occurs. Approximately 5 percent of people appear to be allergic to fragrances. Because of possible toxic effects, oil should not be taken internally by mouth or any other method (this is especially true for eucalyptus, hyssop, mugwort, thuja, pennyroyal, sage, and wormwood). Pregnant women probably should avoid aromatherapy because the use of some oils may lead to miscarriage. Odors may provoke headaches in people with migraines and cause breathing difficulties in those with asthma. Some oils (rosemary, fennel, hyssop,...
In this short review, I have attempted to cover most industrial plants that are commonly used as dietary supplements. There are, certainly, many more such materials. However, it is almost impossible to limit the growing number of plant materials currently used to enrich food to provide health benefits. Therefore, I conclude with the prophecy that the future of plant-based dietary supplements looks very bright and that many more new materials in the form of plant extracts and essential oils will enter the global marketplace within the next decade.
-assage is a healing method that has been used for thousands of years. It was a recommended therapy in ancient China and Egypt. Many common forms of massage now used in the United States are derived from Swedish massage, which was developed by a Swedish physician in the nineteenth century. Massage may be provided on its own, or it may be a component of other forms of alternative healing, including Ayurveda, traditional Chinese medicine, and aromatherapy.
Another important aspect of emulsions in the soft drinks industry Flavor emulsions allow for the use is that many flavorants used in beverage formulations are pre-of water-insoluble flavor oils in soft pared in emulsion forms. In fruit-flavored beverages, the fla-drinks. vorants are mainly essential oils extracted from the fruit. These are not normally soluble or miscible in the water of the product. If added to the formulation on their own as pure essential oils, these would soon separate from the body of the beverage as oil droplets, or even an oil slick, and be quite visible, often as a neck-ring in the bottle. Not only would there be this visual defect, but also, more importantly, the flavorant would very likely not be dispersed homogenously in the beverage. You may ask how are essential oils used in clear drinks, such as lemon oils in lemonade Good question. The full answer will be given in another Chapter 14, which is dedicated to flavors, but here I will explain briefly that...
These were taken in an attempt to produce an abortion. In small doses, these drugs were generally ineffective. In large doses, the toxic effects of the drugs, and not their alleged abortifacient effect, could cause the woman to abort. On occasion, the toxic effects of the drug caused death with or without causing abortion. The first category of drugs was essential oils (oil of pennyroyal, oil of rue, cantharides, and purgatives). These drugs really have no direct stimulating action on the uterine muscle, rather they act indirectly by causing marked pelvic congestion and irritation of the colon, which allegedly cause excitation and contraction of the adjacent uterus, followed by expulsion of the fetus.
The fragrance of flowers derives from volatile oils known as essential oils. More than three thousand essential oils have been identified from over eight-seven plant families worldwide. These oils are not found only in the flowers, but also frequently in the leaves, roots, rhizomes, seeds, rind, or bark. Plants usually produce these oils as a defense against insect attack, plant diseases, or extreme heat. The bioactivity of essential oils is the key to their potency as plant defenses and to their therapeutic properties. White flowers are disproportionately represented in scented genera, because the oil-producing glands compete for location with cells producing pigmentation. The use of essential oils, gums, and resins from plants dates back thousands of years and was particularly important in ancient Egypt and the civilizations of the Middle East with their incense trade routes. The Old World proved to be a rich source of aromatic plant materials, whereas relatively few originate from...
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