Ayurveda the Science of Life
You may not often think about the effect safety has on your health, but accidental injury, motor vehicle collisions, fires, violent crime, and firearms constitute major causes of death and disability in the United States. Working in your home and community to prevent accidental and violent injury is an important but often neglected responsibility. Safety issues arise in countless places, from the dead battery in the smoke detector to the seat belt left unbuckled in the car. Drinking alcohol greatly increases your risk of injury. For example, men have a much higher risk of accidental drowning than do women, and alcohol is implicated in about 40 percent of such incidents. Drinking alcohol also heightens the risk of accidents from motor vehicle collisions, including those involving motorcycles, all-terrain vehicles, and bicycles. Safety and Your Health Safety and Your Health Safety and Your Health and Your Health Staying Healthy Diet has a profound role in preventive medicine and a...
ACPM was established in 1954 as a national professional society for physicians committed to disease prevention and health promotion. Its members are engaged in preventive medicine practice, teaching, and research. Specialists in preventive medicine are uniquely trained in both clinical medicine and public health. Physicians trained in preventive medicine can be found working in primary care settings and managed care organizations, in public health and government agencies, in workplaces, and in academia, attempting to reduce the risks of disease, both in individuals and in groups within the population.
To assure animal health throughout a research study, the animals involved should be procured in good health, monitored for continued health status, and protected from pathogenic organisms through testing of any biological materials. This unit addresses all three of these health management practices. Essential in support of these practices is a diagnostic laboratory capable of testing for rodent and rabbit pathogens.
Men have access to more information about healthcare than ever before, and they are more interested in learning how to live healthier, longer lives. Medicine has made great strides in understanding how to prevent some of the most serious diseases that many men face including heart disease (the number-one killer), diabetes, and some forms of cancer. Advances in molecular biology and technology have given us new, more effective treatments that have improved the outcome of many disorders.
The hydrogen ion concentration ( H + ) of the body, described as the pH or negative log of the H + , is maintained in a narrow range to promote health and homeostasis. The body has many regulatory mechanisms that counteract even a slight deviation from normal pH. Acid-base imbalance can alter many physiological processes and lead to serious problems or, if left untreated, to coma and death. A pH below 7.35 is considered acidosis and above 7.45 is alkalo-sis. Alterations in hydrogen ion concentration can be metabolic or respiratory in origin, or they may have a mixed origin.
Along with a healthy diet, exercise is the cornerstone of good health. Physical activity produces a multitude of benefits for your overall health and well-being. Being active helps prevent heart disease and stroke by lowering cholesterol levels and making the heart pump more efficiently. It reduces the risk of dying prematurely, especially of heart disease. Physical activity helps control your weight and prevent obesity, which is a risk factor for high blood pressure and diabetes. Regular exercise also can improve your mood, reduce stress, and relieve depression, not to mention build muscular strength and tone, increase your flexibility, Choosing the best type of exercise for your lifestyle can be as easy as participating in an activity you like, whether it's biking with the family or playing a not-so-serious game of basketball. All forms of exercise are beneficial for your health. Aerobic exercises are prolonged physical activities that you can perform continuously for at least 12...
The development and healthy life of a human being requires the cooperation of more than ten million cells for the good of the organism. This cooperation is maintained by signals and cellular checkpoints which determine whether cells divide, die, or differentiate. The phenomenon of cancer can be defined on various levels. On the most basic level, cancer represents the collapse of this cooperation. This results in the selfish, uncontrolled growth of cells within the body which eventually leads to the death of the organism. The first chapter will discuss several aspects of cancer biology. This forms the background for the mathematical models which are presented in this book. Of course, cancer biology is a very complicated topic and involves many components which are not mentioned here. A comprehensive review of cancer biology is given in standard textbooks, such as Kinzler and Yogelstein (1998) .
Drinking alcoholic beverages is an accepted social activity. Consumed in moderate amounts, alcohol relaxes you, stimulates your appetite, and produces mild euphoria. It also loosens inhibitions, making you feel more friendly and outgoing. While moderate drinking is not detrimental to your health, excessive drinking (defined as four drinks or more per day) or binge drinking (defined as four drinks at one sitting) can eventually lead to alcoholism and other serious health problems. There is evidence that some people have an inherited predisposition toward alcoholism. The disorders produced by alcoholism are very costly in terms of human suffering and economic hardship.
When you quit smoking, you remove an important source of pleasure and a way to reduce stress from your daily routine. You need to replace the nicotine with something else that gives you pleasure and deal with your stress in more positive ways (see page 118). Maintaining your focus on negative reasons for quitting, such as worrying about your health, will not help you succeed. Forget the no pain, no gain attitude. Instead, embrace your new, more healthy lifestyle positively, without guilt for your past smoking habit. Praise yourself liberally by telling yourself how much better your life is going to be from now on. And remember the following positive things about quitting each time you feel the urge to take a puff Several products containing nicotine are available today to help you stop smoking, including nicotine gum, the nicotine patch, and the nicotine inhaler. Both the patch and the gum are available over-the-counter, while the inhaler requires a doctor's prescription. All three...
What is the best diet to follow to ensure good health Doctors advise that the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (see page 6) and the Food Guide Pyramid (see page 5) are the best general guidelines for healthy people. You can adapt these guidelines to meet your individual needs by working with your doctor to find out your personal health risks. As part of a thorough physical examination, your doctor will check your cholesterol and blood sugar levels and your blood pressure. He or she also will ask you a series of questions to find out your family health history (see page 80). You can also calculate your body mass index (see page 18) and waist-to-hip ratio (see page 18) yourself to find out the distribution of fat on your body. By using this information you and your doctor can tailor your diet to lower your personal risk of disease. Staying Healthy
Marco Mucciarelli begins his chapter (Chapter 6) with a clearly written description of the tools and techniques currently used in plant biotechnology. Dr Mucciarelli then details the research history and current knowledge base of the biotechnological advances with plants used for herbal medicines and dietary supplements. Throughout his chapter and particularly in its concluding pages, Dr Mucciarelli incorporates a thoughtful discussion of the benefits and concerns surrounding genetic modification of plants. The public concern that innocent ingestion of botanical supplements might cause unexpected adverse interactions with prescription drugs is addressed in Chapter 8 by Jerry Cott. Specifically, Dr Cott provides an accessible overview of some potential pharmacokinetic interactions of medications with plant-derived dietary supplements. He uses a review of the known interactions of the popular herbal supplement Hypericum perforatum as an example of a herbal medicine that can interact...
Borchers AT, Hackman RM, Keen CL, et al. Complementary medicine A review of immunomodulatory effects of Chinese herbal medicines. Am J Clin Nutrition 1997 66 1303-1312. Chan TYK, Critchley JAJH. Usage and adverse effects of Chinese herbal medicines. Human Exp Toxicol 1996 15 5-12. Zhang L-H, Huang Y, Wang L-W, et al. Several compounds from Chinese traditional and herbal medicine as immunomodulators. Phytother Res 1995 9 315-322.
It is fascinating to review the recommendations concerning complex carbohydrate from 1977 on. The list includes recommendations made by the Senate Select Committee in 1977, the Dietary Guidelines of 1980, 1985, and 1990, the Surgeon General's reports of 1979 and 1988, the 10th edition of Recommended Dietary Allowances, the 1989 National Academy of Sciences Diet and Health Implications for Reducing Chronic Disease Risk, the 1991 FDA proposal for labeling, and the 1992 Food Guide Pyramid (1-6,8). Indeed, as Joanne Slavin pointed out, . . . there is a wide range of consensus that increased complex carbohydrate is consistent with good health . . . and certainly as Gary Henderson said, . . . the term complex carbohydrate has equity with consumers.
Aromatherapy may be obtained from a practitioner or may be self-administered. It is sometimes combined with herbal medicine or traditional Chinese medicine. Aromatherapy may be provided on an individual basis or as informational classes. Individual sessions typically cost 60 to 80 and last about 60 minutes. Classes cost about 30 for 60 to 120 minutes.
First of all it is necessary to make a clear statement regarding products containing plant derivatives. The pharmaceutical approval scheme has been designed for pure chemical compounds. For this reason it is actually very difficult to register a herbal medicine, collecting all the data needed for the marketing authorization. This is true if the herbal medicine is a multi-compound product, like an extract. But it is false if a single compound, which is the sole cause of the pharmacological effect, has been isolated from the herbal derivative. In this case, the normal pharmaceutical registration way does not present any insurmountable obstacle and there are no reasons not to follow it. The product is always a plant derivative, but as a single compound it is very similar to a new chemical entity. A good example is the oncological products obtained from Taxus baccata. Basically, herbal products are regulated under food law or under pharmaceutical law sometimes with a simplified...
Community health education is the application of a variety of methods that result in the education and mobilization of community members in action for resolving health issues and problems that affect the community. These methods include group process, mass media, communication, community organization, organizational development, strategic planning, skills training, legislation, policymaking, and advocacy. It is also defined as a theory-driven process that promotes health and prevents disease within populations (2000 Joint Committee on Health Education Terminology, 2001, p. 5).
No large published clinical studies have specifically investigated the effect of Ayurveda on MS or its symptoms. Some components of Ayurveda have been investigated individually. These include massage, meditation, and yoga, all of which are discussed elsewhere in this book. These therapies may be helpful for some symptoms that occur with MS, including fatigue, spasticity, pain, depression, and anxiety. Ashwagandha, the Ayurvedic supplement sometimes recommended for MS, has been studied mainly in scientific and animal studies. In these studies, ashwagandha has been shown to stimulate the immune system. It also may produce sedating effects. Ashwagandha has not been studied in clinical trials in MS as a result, it is not known if it has any therapeutic effects in MS. Some research has evaluated Ayurvedic supplements for other conditions. One small study found that the herb Phyllanthus was an effective therapy for liver inflammation subsequent studies did not find beneficial effects. For...
Before we look at what you can do when your kidneys start to fail, it's a good idea to review the basics on how the kidneys work in the body. With this knowledge, you will get a better understanding of why the kidneys are so important in the functioning of your body and the extent of the damage that can occur to your health if things do go wrong.
How much you weigh is determined by a number of factors, including the amount and type of food you eat, whether you exercise, whether you eat in response to stress, your genetic makeup, your age, and your health. If you want to lose pounds and maintain a reasonable weight, you need to deal with all of these issues. Eating less and exercising are both critical to any weight-loss program, but if you eat out of boredom or fatigue, you will have a lot of difficulty keeping those pounds off permanently. Losing weight requires permanent changes in your lifestyle changes that might be tough to make. Fad diets that offer quick and easy results usually deliver only empty promises. Such diets may even be harmful to your health. Be especially wary of any diet that eliminates an entire food group, such as carbohydrates, because you could become deficient in essential nutrients. The only proven way to lose weight is to cut your intake of calories especially high-fat foods and to increase your...
The most popular herb sales in the United States include Echinacea (10 ), garlic (10 ), goldenseal* (7 ), ginseng (6 ), Ginkgo (4.5 ), and saw palmetto (4.4 ). * Goldenseal is often used illicitly in unsuccessful attempts to disguise urinary marijuana (THC) metabolites. There are no toxicologic databases on herbal and vitamin toxicity in the United States. In Hong Kong, herbal medicine toxicity accounts for less than 1 of all acute hospital admissions, and Western medicine toxicity and drug-drug interactions account for 4.4 of all acute hospital admissions. Fatalities have resulted from megadoses of the fat-soluble and lipophilic (stored in liver and brain) vitamins A, D, and E and therapeutic (homeopathic) doses of niacin and tryptophan.
In addition to eating a healthy diet and exercising, seeing your doctor regularly for recommended screening tests is a good way to stay healthy. Regular medical checkups are an important preventive health measure. During your periodic checkup, your doctor can detect any medical problems in the early stages so they can be treated promptly. Your doctor uses numerous medical tests and screenings to check for any health problems. Before deciding which tests to order, your doctor will perform a comprehensive physical examination (see page 86) and will take a medical history, which is a record of every factor that might affect your health. To complete the medical history, your doctor will ask you a series of questions about your personal habits, your family health history (see page 80), any medical problems you had in the past, and any symptoms you might be experiencing at present. When answering your doctor's questions, it is important to provide as much information as you can without...
Staying Healthy During a routine physical examination, your doctor asks you a series of questions to find out your current health status, what medical problems or injuries you have had in the past, and what medical conditions your family members have had. This interview is called the personal health history, and it helps your doctor become familiar with your health status so he or she can better diagnose and treat an illness you may have. Develop your own written personal health history and keep it at home so you can monitor your medications and any changes in your health.
Your doctor uses the routine physical examination to assess your current physical condition and to identify any undiagnosed disorders. A routine physical examination also helps your doctor become familiar with you and your health risks or medical problems. The frequency with which you see the doctor for a routine checkup varies, depending upon your age and whether you already have a medical condition. Before beginning the examination, the doctor will take a complete medical history by asking you a series of questions about your lifestyle habits, general health, and family health history (see page 80). Taking a thorough medical history often takes as long as the physical examination itself but is just as important.
In general, how would you say your health is yourself your school work your ability to play sports your friendships the things you can do the way you get along with others your body and your looks the way you seem to feel most of the time the way you get along with your family the way life seems to be for you your ability to be a friend to others the way others seem to feel about you your ability to talk with others your health in general Compared to one year ago, how would you rate your health now How often has your health or behavior - limited the types of activities you could do as a
Sometimes a physical examination of your body is not enough to tell your doctor the full condition of your health. In such cases the doctor may order a number of common screening tests. Blood tests and urinalysis help the doctor find out if all of the components of your blood or urine are at normal levels. Scanning techniques such as X rays, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound scanning, and computed tomography (CT) scanning produce pictures of the inside of your body without surgery to give your doctor important information about your overall health. If your doctor has ordered one of these tests for you and you don't understand what exactly is going to happen, ask questions so you can feel more comfortable about having the procedure. Diagnostic techniques are changing rapidly, and newer techniques will undoubtedly be available in the near future. Staying Healthy
Different methodologies assess different health outcomes. For example, QOL scales (self-assessment questionnaires) measure the patient's perceived quality of health retrospectively, whereas utility scales measure projected health state. An example of the latter is the time trade-off method that identifies the number of years of perfect health the interviewee (often not a patient) is willing to exchange for 5 to 10 years in each health state. Products of outcomes research often apply linear analogue scoring or category rating not only to physical status, but also to psychological and social well-being by assessing variables such as pain, mobility, capacity for sexual relationships, and symptomfree days. Additional complexity arises when cost-effectiveness of treatment alternatives is included.
Tarragon grows wild through most of the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere from Europe to China and North America. It belongs to the same botanical family as wormwood, southernwood, and mugwort, all used as herbal remedies. Tarragon is much used in French cooking. Tarragon vinegar is made by putting fresh tarragon leaves in vinegar and allowing them to infuse for some time. It is essential for making Bearnaise sauce and for all dishes a l'estragon. It is quite a strong flavor and must be added carefully to delicate dishes. A. brotanum (southernwood or garderobe) is strongly aromatic and used to repel moths but is not used in food.
The following statements describe your daily work, around the home. When you answer, think of yourself today. If 'AGREE' PROBE Is this due to your health The following statements describe the activities you usually do in your spare time, for relaxation, entertainment or just to pass the time. Again, think of yourself today. If 'AGREE' PROBE Is this due to your health
Sleep is a basic requirement for good health. The mind and the body need sleep to perform maintenance and repair. Even one night of disrupted or missed sleep can drastically alter a person's chemical balance and cause daytime sleepiness and fatigue. The results of such sleep deprivation can reduce productivity as well as increase the chances of accidents at home or at work. Most adults need 7 to 8 hours of sleep each night, although sleep requirements may differ from one person to the next. For example, some people may feel rested after 5 or 6 hours of sleep, whereas others may still feel sleepy after 9 or more hours of sleep.
The ego psychologists were especially interested in the functioning of the ego and emphasized the importance of adaptation (Hartmann, 1958, 1964). Ego psychology set out to elaborate the various aspects of healthy functioning or ego-adaptive capacity. This aspect of psychodynamic theory was expanded by Horner (1994, 1995) and is an extremely valuable component of psychodynamic assessment, especially when conducting brief dynamic therapy.
This is regarded as one of the most important of indigenous North American plants, with the plant being used as a dye and the dried root used in many traditional herbal remedies. It is now also common in the Mediterranean region. The young shoots are used as a good substitute for asparagus, and poultry are very happy to eat the berries (hence the common name pigeon berry), although eating too many can give their flesh an unpleasant flavor. In Portugal the juice of the berries was used to color port wines, but this was discontinued as it affected the flavor. As the plant matures the whole plant becomes poisonous.
Herbs may contain chemicals that have harmful effects. For example, the lily-of-the-valley plant contains potent heart toxins. Some herbs, such as chaparral and comfrey (or contaminants mixed in with the herbs), have been associated with a severe liver toxicity that has led to death or the need for liver transplantation. An example of a tragic case of liver injury was described in February 1999. A 28-year-old man with mild MS was treating his disease with zinc and two herbal medicines, scullcap and pau d'arco. He developed severe liver injury and died. The liver injury was believed to be due to a chemical contaminant in the scullcap.
This survey asks for your views about your health This information will be summarized iri your medical record and will help your doctors keep track of how you feel and how well you are able to do your usual activities. 1. In general, would you say your health Is (circle one number)
The confusion in names makes it difficult to trace the early spread of cardamom. True cardamom is native to southern India and Sri Lanka and is probably the cardamom of 4th century bc Ayurvedic medicine. In Greece, at about the same time, Theophrastus described the inferior amomon, the superior kardamomon, and a round reddish pepper with a capsule, which some have also identified with cardamom. Pliny likewise distinguished amomum, associated with northern India cardamom, which had the same kind of fruit as amomum and came from Arabia and siliq-uastrum or piperitis, a kind of pepper from southern India with seeds in small pods . . . such as we see in beans. In the 15th centurym the Portuguese referred to siliquastro or the pepper of Calicut, which may link Pliny's siliquastrum with true cardamom. Aframomum melegueta of west Africa is today known as melegueta pepper, so the identification of some classical peppers with cardamom is not as far-fetched as it might at first seem.
Vation and oral hygiene of the patient. Long-term studies considering all of these factors have reported results ranging from 4 , to 38 loss of residual roots with up to 53 years of postsurgical service . 1 With careful diagnosis, treatment planning, and good surgical technique, the tooth with resected roots may have a favorable prognosis. Plaque control is critical. For this reason, the patient has the final word about whether the tooth will ultimately be lost or remain as a healthy functioning unit in the dentition.
First, attention should be paid to the margin between physiological need and toxic intake, i.e., dose. On the one hand, nutrients are necessary for life and good health, on the other, they may pose life threatening risks. When the intake of nutrients is very low, this may lead to lethal deficiencies, whereas a very high intake may cause toxic effects. The requirements for optimal nutrient intake are based on both deficiency and toxicity data. The optimal intake of a nutrient may be defined as the intake that meets the minimal physiological needs of an organism for that nutrient, and does not cause adverse effects. An example of the implications of overintake is the acute vitamin A toxicity in Arctic and Antarctic explorers on the consumption of polar bear liver containing about 600 mg retinol per 100 g liver. The explorers were informed by the Eskimos that eating polar bear liver may cause drowsiness, headache, vomiting, and extensive peeling of the skin. Figure 12.2 Impact of...
CA Therapeutic Research Faculty, 2005, pp. 82-83. Kaplan GP. Ayurvedic medicine. In Oken BS, ed. Complementary Therapies in Neurology. London Parthenon Publishing, 2004, pp. 145-158. Manyam BV Ayurvedic approach to neurologic illness. In Weintraub MI, Micozzi MS, eds. Alternative and Complementary Treatment in Neurologic Illness. New York Churchill Livingstone. 2001, pp. 68-74. Pai S, Shanbhag V, Archarya S. Ayurvedic medicine. In Kligler B, Lee R, eds. Integrative Medicine Principles for Practice. New York McGraw-Hill, 2004, pp. 219-240. Agarwal R, Diwanay S, Patki P, et al. Studies on immunomodulatory activity of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) extracts in experimental immune inflammation. J Ethnopharmacol 1999 67 27-35. Saper RB, Kales SN, Paquin J, et al. Heavy metal content of Ayurvedic herbal medicine products. JAMA 2004 292 2868-2873. Ziauddin M, Phansalkar N, Patki P, et al. Studies on the immunomodulatory effects of Ashwagandha. J Ethnopharmacol 1996 50 69-76.
Your Health and Weil-Being This survey asks for your views about your health. This information will help keep track of how you feel and how well you are able to do your usual activities. Thank you for completing this survey For each of the following questions, please mark an M in the one box that best describes your answer. 1. In general, would you say your health is 2. Compared to one year ago, how would you rate your health in general now 3. The following items are about activities you might do during a typical day. Does your health now limit you in these activities If so, how much
The current management of MetS reflects two major considerations (1) promotion of healthy lifestyle changes to ameliorate the root environmental causes and (2) the therapeutic approaches to manage the individual components of MetS. Healthy lifestyle promotion includes (1) dietary changes in terms of moderating calorie intake to achieve a 5-10 loss of body weight in the first year and changing dietary composition (2) increasing physical activity and (3) changes in dietary composition to lower intake of saturated fats, trans fats and cholesterol, and include carbohydrates with a low glycemic index and high content of soluble fiber.
Foxglove, Digitalis purpurea, is one of the best-known examples of a remedy developed from close observation of the pharmacological effects of the species. Digitoxin from this and related species is still extracted from several members of the genus and is used today in the treatment of coronary disease. It was reportedly used by an English housewife to treat dropsy, and then used more systematically by the physician William Withering (1741-1799). Prior to William Withering, herbal-ism in Britain spread simply by word of mouth his endeavors transformed it into a form of science used by medical professionals. Herbalism during this period was more of a clinical procedure concerned with the patient's welfare, than a systematic study of the virtues and chemical properties of medicinal plants.
One feature of the way that the healthy body responds to neural controls is the lack of a requirement for concentration. For most people, activities such as listening, keeping the heart beating, or using a limb to walk or move a sandwich from the plate to the mouth do not require significant focus and concentration. Amputees learning to use a new prosthetic limb can require very significant levels of concentrated mental effort. Training periods that are too long with too little indication of progress and a return to normal function can reduce the morale and interest of the amputee to a point where interest in gaining a facility in using the device disappears. The most advanced neuroprosthetic limbs will be unused if the training requirement is too long and difficult. Each individual user may have a different level of tolerance for extensive training and a different level of desire to master the device.
Similar developments took place in the United States. The U.S. Surgeon General published a major review on nutrition and health proposing that the dietary energy from fat be reduced to 30 (1). A further review carried out by the National Academy of Sciences (14) resulted in the U.S. government report ''Nutrition and Your Health Dietary Guidelines for Americans'' (15). Recent data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
The current practices within traditional Indian medicine reflect an ancient tradition that can be traced back to at least 900 bc, to written Ayurvedic records (Kapoor 1990 Mukherjee 2001). These practices, all holistic in nature, are divided into three principal systems Ayurveda, Siddha, and Unani. The most ancient is Ayurveda, literally meaning the science of life, and has a basis in the spiritual as well as the temporal. The practice of Ayurveda is aimed at the intrinsic whole of the patient and involves the administration of medicinal preparations of complex mixtures containing animal, plant, and mineral products. Siddha can be considered similar to Ayurveda and is governed by the understanding that everything, including the human body, is made up of the five basic elements earth, water, fire, air and space. In addition, 96 major elements are considered to constitute human beings and include the constituents of physiological, moral, and intellectual elements. An imbalance among any...
Ginger is one of the world's most commonly used culinary spices. The medicinal use of ginger has an ancient history and can be traced back to Greek and Roman times. In Indian medicinal practice the plant has been mentioned in religious scriptures dating back to 2000 bc. The rhizome of the plant is used and is best recognized in Ayurvedic medicine as an aid to digestion and to treat rheumatism inflammation. Trikatu ( three spice ) is an example of an Ayurvedic remedy containing ginger, used to improve digestive and respiratory function, which also contains black pepper (Piper nigrum) and Indian long pepper (Piper longum). Across the world ginger is a popular food additive to aid digestion. Some of its more unusual uses are to promote hair growth (Japan), treat nerve disorders (India), and as an aphrodisiac (Cuba, Yemen). Ginger is acknowledged in Ayurveda to be effective against nausea and neurological dysfunction. Ginger consumption has also been reported to have a beneficial effect...
Azadirachta indica or neem is a principal species used in the Ayurvedic medicine of India and today is a tree grown throughout the (sub)tropics. The species is drought resistant and thrives in arid conditions with annual rainfall of between 15-46 inches (400-1200 mm). It can grow between 0-1500 m above sea level, but it is intolerant to freezing, extended periods of cold, and waterlogged soils. Neem trees can reach a height of 80-100 feet (25-30 m) and provide valuable shade with their dense canopy of pinnate leaves. The neem tree possesses many medicinal uses derived from all parts of the plant. As part of Ayurvedic medicine, the leaves are chewed for 15 days in late winter in order to maintain a healthy
Barnes J, Anderson, L.A. and Phillipson, J.D. 2002. Herbal Medicines. A Guide for Healthcare Professionals (2nd ed.). London Pharmaceutical Press. Blumenthal, M., et al. 2000. Herbal Medicine Expanded Commission E Monographs. Newton, MA Integrative Medicine Communications. Blumenthal, M., et al. 1998. The Complete German Commission E Monographs Therapeutic Guide to Herbal Medicines. Schulz, V., Hansel, R., Tyler, V.E. and Tegler, T.C. 2001. Rational Phytotherapy A Physician's Guide to Herbal Medicine (4th ed.). Berlin Springer. Sneader, W. 1996. Drug Prototype and their Exploitation. Chichester Wiley. Tschirch, A. 1910. Handbuch der Pharmakognosie (1st ed.). Leipzig Tachnitz. Weiss, R., and Fintelmann, V. 2000. Herbal Medicine. Stuttgart Thieme.
Expected to grow as a larger percentage of the population develops obesity and diabetes. As a result of lifestyle changes, primarily in reduced smoking, improved diet and exercise, more aggressive preventive medicine, as well as modern improvements in detection, diagnosis, and treatment, the mortality rates from CHD in both men and women are significantly decreasing in western Europe and the US. Nevertheless, despite these improvements, nearly 25-30 of patients in the US still die within a year of their first heart attack.3 In contrast, from 1990 to 2002 the most dramatic and rapid increases in both CHD incidence and mortality have occurred in developing countries such as Russia, China, India, and the countries of Eastern Europe. Proportionate increases of smaller magnitude have also been observed in South America and Africa.3 While previously considered a disease attributed to the sedentary lifestyle and fatty diets of modern American and western cultures, more than 75 of deaths...
The likelihood that susceptibility to lead toxicity varies among individuals within a species has several lines of supporting evidence. First, it has been shown that the toxicokinetics of lead differs in the human population based on at least two genes. These genes can influence not only the amount of lead absorbed, but also the amount of lead which is chelatable (using dimercaptosuccinic acid DMSA ) (Schwartz et al. 2000). Additionally, lead toxicity differences have been reported among mice differing in certain behavioral parameters (e.g., circling preferences). This led the authors to suggest that brain laterality and neuroimmune circuits may be important factors linked to individual susceptibility to environmentally induced immunomodulation (Kim and Lawrence 2000). Gender appears to influence the susceptibility and nature of the toxicity response to certain lead exposures. Vahter et al. (2002) reviewed the hypotheses and available literature that metal toxicity, including lead...
Why not use a so-called health-related quality of life (QOL) measure A number of published generic and disease-specific quality of life measurement scales might be considered for use in assessing AT impact. They have two primary limitations. First, they are too medically oriented. Most assistive devices are not intended to promote health and healing, but rather to improve or restore functional capabilities. Second, they are designed to assess health status or change in health status and not the impact attributable to any particular form of intervention. They are either not sensitive enough to detect functional and psychosocial changes specific to an AT intervention, or cannot be used with some clients because their functional limitations, although accommodated through AT, are too severe to permit reliable assessment using the instrument. In any event, AT is meant to achieve different QOL outcomes than surgery, physical therapy, and pharmaceutical treatments.
Indian pennywort is a creeping herbaceous plant that prefers a moist habitat and is found near reservoirs and streams. This pantropical species is commonly found in India and throughout Sri Lanka, Madagascar, China, South Africa, the southeastern United States, Mexico, Venezuela, and Colombia. It is possible that Centella asiatica is identical with the medicinal plant called manduk-pani in the Sanskrit text of Susruta (ca. 1200 bc), and today it is used not only in Ayurvedic medicine, but in a large number of medical systems, for a great variety of diseases, and throughout its native range. The major application of C. asiatica has been in the treatment of leprous lesions, first reported in 1887. The active triterpenoid principles were identified 70 years later, but in clinical trials have only been found to be effective in aiding wound healing, vein problems, and striae gravidarum (stretch marks of pregnancy). Standardized extracts of C. asiatica are today incorporated into various...
Winter cherry, also known as Indian ginseng, has similar alleged rejuvenating properties to that of ginseng in Chinese medicine. The plant is endemic to India, particularly in the sub-Himalayan (1000 m) tracts of Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, and the drier parts of India. Its use can be traced back to Assyrian sources, and the drug was already used in Mesopotamia as a narcotic. Ancient sacred writings of Hinduism from India praise the plant as a wonder drug, and it was used as a charm and as an aphrodisiac. In Europe it has been known since the 16th century and it is included in many herbals. In Ayurvedic medicine the roots are used to treat ulcers, fever, breathing difficulties, cough, tuberculosis, dropsy, and a variety of nervous disorders.
Coptis teeta is a Ayurvedic herb found in the eastern Himalayan regions, particularly the Mishmi hill range of Arunachal Pradesh in northeast India. The rhizome of the plant is a prized medicinal commodity and is used to treat gastrointestinal complaints (WHO 1999) and malarial infections. However, the plant has been brought close to extinction by deforestation and overexploitation for its medicinal properties. Conservation schemes have recently been proposed and these may lead to the recovery of C. teeta. Coptis species found in other continents are also used medicinally by local populations and include C. trifolia (gold thread, North America) C. chinensis (China), and C. japonica (Southeast Asia). The principal active constituent of Coptis is the alkaloid berberine and it is known to display antidiarrheal and antimicrobial activity (WHO 1999).
Dill is native to the Mediterranean countries and southern Russia and is now cultivated widely in Europe, India, and North America. Dill has been used since classical times in herbalism to aid digestion. The leaves and seeds have a similar flavor, reminiscent of caraway, though the seed
The component of the school health program (health services, healthful school environment, health instruction) that provides teaching and learning experiences. School health education is also concerned with developing, implementing, and evaluating planned instructional programs and activities that favorably influence knowledge, attitudes, habits, practices, appreciations, and conduct pertaining to the health of students. School health education is aimed at protecting and promoting health among students and school personnel. It is usually planned and conducted under the supervision of school personnel and with involvement of community health personnel (Hamburg, 1993 Schall, 1994).
In complex or chronic diseases associated with ageing, such as dementia, disease postponement may be an adequate prevention measure for the foreseeable future. While postponement does not prevent disease, the period of time involved may still have a dramatic effect. Delaying the onset of dementia could allow a person to enjoy a longer period of healthy life, before succumbing to some other condition perhaps before dementia developed, or when their dementia was still relatively mild. In the United States, it has been estimated that if the onset of Alzheimer's disease were delayed by two years, the prevalence of around 2.9 million cases in 2007 would be reduced by around 600 000 Disease postponement is largely about modifying known risk factors of dementia.3 The Chinese herb Ginkgo biloba is thought to increase circulation to the brain. In Europe and some Asian countries, standardised extracts from ginkgo leaves are taken to treat a wide range of symptoms, including dizziness,...
This questionnaire is about the way your health affects your everyday life. Please read the instructions for each question and then answer by selecting the sentence which describes you best. When answering the questions, it may help to think about the things you have done over the last week and compare yourself with someone like you who is in good health. 1. Does your health stop you from getting around 2. Does your health stop you looking after yourself 3. Does your health limit your work or leisure activities 4. Does your health stop you getting on with people 5. Does your health stop you understanding the world around you
The frontal lobes are important for the expression of speech and the control of movements. Thus, it was also remarkable that he did not suffer with weakness or a loss of speech. His personality, however, did undergo a dramatic change. According to Harlow (1868), before the accident Gage had a well balanced mind. And was looked upon by those who knew him as a shrewd, smart businessman, very energetic and persistent in executing all his plans. After the accident he lost these skills. According to Harlow (1868), His mind was radically changed, so decidedly that his friends and acquaintances said he was no longer Gage.
A measure of the burden of disability-causing disease and injury. Age-specific expected life-years are adjusted for expected loss of healthy life during those years, yielding states of health measures or, when two streams of DALYs are compared, potential health gain or loss in different scenarios or as a consequence of different decisions. Cf. Assessment Quality of Life, EQ-5D, EuroQol, Health Gain, Health Status, Health Utilities Index, Healthy Year Equivalents, Quality-adjusted Life-year, SF-6D, SF-8, SF-12, SF-36.
The table below gives you an estimate of the amount of supplies you will need according to the number of people in your area. To find the amounts needed for each item, look in the column under the approximate population of your catchment area to the nearest 5000. You may add several columns (e.g. if your health facility serves 35 000 people, add the amounts in the 10 000 and 5000 columns to those in the 20 000 column). Write the amount needed at your health facility in the empty column on the right.
The table below gives you an estimate of the amount of supplies you will need according to the number of people in your area. To find the amounts needed for each item, look in the column under the approximate population of your catchment area to the nearest 5000. You may add several columns (e.g. if your health facility serves 35 000 people, add the amounts in the 10 000 and 5000 columns to those in the 20 000 column). Write the amount needed at your health facility in the empty column on the right. On the basis of drug resistance in your area, choose only one of the antimicrobial.
I might read the statement I am not driving my car. If this statement is related to your health and describes you today, you should tell me. Also, if you have not been driving for some time because of your health, and are still not driving today, you should respond to this statement. On the other hand, if you never drive or are not driving today because your car is being repaired, the statement, I am not driving my car is not related to your health and you should not respond to it. If you simply are driving less, or are driving shorter distances, and feel that the statement only partially describes you, please do not respond to it. I am now going to begin the questionnaire. Please tell me if you want me to slow down, repeat a statement, or stop so that you can think about one. Also let me know any time you would like to review the instructions. Remember we are interested in the recent or longstanding changes in your activities that are related to your...
Please Read The Entire Introduction Before You Read The Questionnaire It Is Very Important That Everyone Taking The
The questionnaire booklet lists statements that people have told us describe them when they are not completely well. Whether or not you consider yourself sick, there may be some statements that will stand out because they describe you today and are related to your state of health. As you read the questionnaire, think of yourself today. When you read a statement that you are sure describes you and is related to your health, place a check on the line to the right of the statement. For example
If you have not been driving for some time because of your health, and are still not driving today, you should respond to this statement. On the other hand, if you never drive or are not driving today because your car is being repaired, the statement, I am not driving my car is not related to your health and you should not check it. If you simply are driving less, or are driving shorter distances, and feel that the statement only partially describes you, do not check it. In all of these cases you would leave the line to the right of the statement blank. For example
CCPH is a nonprofit organization whose focus is to promote health by creating partnerships between higher institutions of learning and their local communities. Health promotion is accomplished through service-learning projects, community service, community-based research, and other strategies that might be used by the partnerships to improve the health of communities.
The mode of action of buprofezin resembles that of the BPUs, although its structure is not analogous (Uchida et al., 1985 De Cock and Degheele, 1998 Ishaaya, 2001). The compound strongly inhibits the incorporation of 3H-glucose and GlcNAc into chitin. As a result of chitin deficiency, the procuticle of treated larval stages loses its elasticity and the insect is unable to molt. In addition, buprofezin may work as a prostaglandin inhibitor that may lead to suppression of ecdysis and slightly reduced DNA synthesis. It also exerts its effect on egg-hatch and on the larval stages in the rice planthopper, Nilapar-vata lugens, and the whiteflies, Bemesia tabaci and Trialeurodes vaporariorum (De Cock et al., 1995
Programs aimed at students were found to impart knowledge, but not to lead to behavioral change. As far as high-risk groups such as patients with diabetes, cancer, kidney problems, high blood pressure, high cholesterol level, and obesity are concerned, maintenance of behavioral change (diet compliance) is the major problem. Mass media nutrition education programs do not yield positive results. Successful nutrition education programs are characterized by interpersonal contact, social support, self-control, and feedback. Adaptation of the intervention to the individual's attitudes and skills is effective. Interventions aimed at groups (e.g., patient groups) and those based on relapse prevention techniques are promising. For example, in the Netherlands, a large number of programs are available, but subsequent evaluation is often lacking. The Way of Life television campaign, intended to combine health education with entertainment, appeared to attract people's attention, and to heighten...
Fundamental knowledge about the nature and behavior of living systems and the application of that knowledge to extend healthy life and reduce the burdens of illness and disability. The goals of the agency are as follows (1) foster fundamental creative discoveries, innovative research strategies, and their applications as a basis to advance significantly the Nation's capacity to protect and improve health (2) develop, maintain, and renew scientific human and physical resources that will assure the Nation's capability to prevent disease (3) expand the knowledge base in medical and associated sciences in order to enhance the Nation's economic well-being and ensure a continued high return on the public investment in research and (4) exemplify and promote the highest level of scientific integrity, public accountability, and social responsibility in the conduct of science (National Institutes of Health, 2003).
The Public Health electronic Library is a national one-stop shop for all information relating to public health. It aims to provide knowledge and know-how to promote health, prevent disease, and reduce health inequities. Its primary audience is professionals in the public health community. PHeL is a specialist library of the National electronic Library for Health.
PHI, founded in 1964, is an independent, nonprofit organization dedicated to promoting health and quality of life for people throughout California, across the nation, and worldwide. PHI promotes and sustains independent, innovative research, training, and demonstration programs, many in collaboration with the private health care system and community-based organizations.
Based in Omaha, Nebraska, WELCOA was founded in 1987 as a national nonprofit membership organization dedicated to promoting healthier lifestyles for all Americans through health promotion initiatives at the worksite. WELCOA serves as an umbrella, linking communities and coalitions together into a supportive network that includes locally affiliated Wellness Councils, Well City initiatives, Well Workplaces, and individual and corporate members throughout the United States.
John's wort, a herbal remedy and a widely used antidepressant, has not been subjected to the rigorous clinical testing that most drug candidates currently in development receive. A number of case reports have demonstrated drug-drug interactions between St. John's wort and various drugs that are CYP3A4 substrates 91,92 . In women St. John's wort increased the clearance of oral contraceptives, which led to decreased circulating sex steroid levels and the loss of contraceptive efficacy 93 . Co-administration of St. John's wort also reduces the blood levels of HIV protease inhibitors and immunosuppressant drugs 94,95 . Recently Kliewer and colleagues demonstrated that these St. John's wort related drug interactions are due to activation of human PXR and subsequent induction of CYP3A4 expression 96 . Another example is paclitaxel, which is a widely used antineoplastic agent, an efficient human PXR activator, and a substrate of CYP3A4 and CYP2C8. The therapeutic efficacy of this drug...
According to CDC advertising, the mission of the agency is to promote health and quality of life by preventing and controlling disease, injury, and disability. Its mission is accomplished through national and international leadership applied epidemiology, laboratory, and behavioral research building the public health system through technical and financial assistance and training setting standards and guidelines and surveillance and data analysis. Research findings and surveillance data are published in the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.
This section deals with the necessary housekeeping involved with keeping discus. You must maintain the best water quality possible at all times if you wish to keep your fish in good health. It is often said that discus are prone to disease but this is a bit unfair. When they are healthy from the start and kept in clean water of the proper chemistry and temperature and fed properly, they are no more prone to illness than any other fish.
Many overweight men have difficulty reaching their healthy body weight, and the more you weigh above your ideal weight, the harder it can be to lose the extra pounds. It is encouraging to learn, then, that losing even a relatively small amount of weight can reduce your chances of developing heart disease or stroke. For example, reducing your weight by just 10 percent can improve the efficiency of your heart, lower your blood pressure, and reduce the level of cholesterol in your blood. In fact, you can increase your overall health by losing as few as 10 to 20 pounds. Staying Healthy Keeping your weight within a healthy range over the years requires self-control and a commitment to your health. If you are already overweight, work with your doctor to develop a safe and effective weight-loss plan that can help you keep your weight down over the long term. If you are underweight, your doctor can help you plan a diet that will allow you to gain weight sensibly.
The HRQL scoring systems provide utility (preference) scores on a generic scale where dead 0.00 and perfect health 1.00. HUI scores meet or exceed the criteria for calculating quality-adjusted life years (QALY), and the requirements of published guidelines for economic evaluations of pharmaceutical and other health care services. The health status classification and HRQL scoring systems are generic in terms of applying to all people age 5 years and older in both clinical and general populations. A health-status classification system based on HUI2 and HUI3 suitable for children 3 to 5 years of age is under development.
Even though the number of synthetically produced drugs has increased enormously during the past hundred years, more than 25 per cent of all prescriptions still contain active ingredients of plant origin (Oksman-Caldentey and Hiltunen, 1996). The amount of natural products is expected to increase, due to the above-mentioned limitations of synthetic industrial processes and also as a consequence of the increasing scientific and public interest in traditional and herbal medicine, e.g. homeopathy and so-called functional foods.
There is also the category of traditional herbal medicines a list of 196 herbal ingredients that can be registered through a simplified pharmaceutical registration procedure. Mixtures containing herbs on this list are allowed if their association is justifiable the product must consist of a maximum of four herbs with similar or synergic usage. In Germany herbals are usually marketed as medicines, because the local health authority considers even the most traditionally used herbs as having therapeutical properties. Beyond medicinal products, there is a category of traditional herbal remedies. These products were on the German market before 1978 and contain prophylactic or mildly effective herbs of German or other European origin. A limited number of herbal medicines are covered by pharmacopoeia monographs. Products which fully comply with these monographs can be authorized with a very simplified dossier. Food supplements containing herbs and traditional herbal remedies are sold freely....
The definition of constipation varies tremendously among both patients and physicians. When adults not seeking health care were asked to define constipation, their most frequent definitions included straining (52 ), hard stools (44 ), infrequent stools (32 ), as well as terms such as abdominal discomfort and sense of incomplete evacuation. 1 According to Ruben,2 62 of the general population believes that a daily bowel movement is a sign of good health they may report constipation if they fail to achieve a daily bowel movement or even if they fail to achieve a bowel movement at their usual time each day. Definitions used by physicians include (1) unspecific self-reported symptoms,3 (2) stool frequency of less than three bowel movements per week,4 and (3) whole gut transit time of more than 68 hours.5 Ultimately, the Rome criteria have been accepted as a comprehensive standardized definition for constipation3,6
Europe differs from the other regions under discussion, in that there the historical knowledge about medicinal plants is rarely a popular tradition or based on knowledge handed down from one generation to the next. Instead herbal traditions form part of mainstream pharmaceutical traditions and relatively well-researched botanical medicines are often available. Most of this information is now transmitted via the mass media, especially through popular books about herbal medicines and in countries such as Switzerland, Italy, France and Germany. Other countries, like the United Kingdom, consider many herbal medical products to be a form of alternative and complementary medicine. However, in both cases medicinal plants have become a commodity. The use of medicinal plants has always been an important part of all medical systems, including those in Europe during the various historical periods. Little is known about the popular traditions of Medieval and early modern Europe, since these were...
There are five components of traditional Chinese medicine. In addition to acupuncture, they include traditional Chinese herbs, diet and nutrition, exercise, stress reduction and counseling, and massage. T'ai chi, which is discussed elsewhere in this book, is also a component of traditional Chinese medicine. This chapter discusses acupuncture as well as two types of herbal medicine Asian herbal medicine and Asian proprietary (or patent) medicine.
Many commonly used herbs may stimulate the immune system (see Table 23.2). Echinacea is the most well known of these herbs. Some other herbs in this category are among the most popular herbs in the United States, including alfalfa, Asian ginseng, astragalus, cat's claw, garlic, saw palmetto, and Siberian ginseng. Other immune-stimulating herbs may be found in this book in the chapters on Asian herbal medicine and Ayurvedic medicine. For people with MS, the use of one rather uncommon herb, woody nightshade stem, is specifically discouraged in The German Commission E Monographs, an authoritative text on herbal medicine 3 . It is not clear if
Backett, K., Davison, C., & Mullen, K. (1994). Lay evaluation of health and healthy lifestyles Evidence from three studies. British Journal of General Practice, 44(383), 277-280. Hamburg, M. V. (1993). Perspectives on teaching comprehensive school health. Preventive Medicine, 22(4), 533-543. Huff, R. M., & Kline, M. V. (1999). Promoting health in multicultural populations A handbook for practitioners. Thousand Oaks, CA Sage. Moorhead, R. G. (1992). Who do people talk to about healthy lifestyles A South Australian survey. Family Practice, 9(4), 472-475. Rudd, R. E., & Walsh, D. C. (1993). Schools as healthful environments Prerequisite to comprehensive school health Preventive Medicine, 22(4), 499-506. Schall, E. (1994). School-based health education What works American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 10(Suppl. 3), 30-32. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2000). Healthy people 2010 Understanding and improving health (Vols. 1 & 2). Washington, DC Government Printing Office.
Many of the health risks for today's children and adolescents are related to behavior and lifestyle. For example, risky behaviors (such as drug use and smoking) and failure to follow the basics of a healthy lifestyle (such as exercising regularly and eating a healthy diet) can contribute to poor health in both children and adolescents. A variety of personality traits have been identified in young children that can be used to predict risky behavior later in life. These traits include tolerance for deviance, rebelliousness, nontraditional values, emphasis on autonomy, inability to delay gratification, deemphasis on achievement, self-centeredness, and low self-esteem.
If you have children, there are a number of things you should know about their nutritional needs. For example, doctors now recommend that infants breast-feed for the first 12 months of their lives. Breast milk supplies better nutrition than commercial formula, promotes brain development, and provides infection-fighting antibodies to help the infant stay healthy. Provide your partner with lots of support and encouragement while she breast-feeds your infant. Note that infants should not begin to drink cow's milk until they are 1 year old because it can cause an allergic reaction and is too concentrated for an infant.
Since the 1940s scientific bodies have met to discuss nutrition recommendations. Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) have been developed to provide nutrient allowances for the maintenance of good health. These guidelines are most useful to health professionals in planning and evaluating diets. For consumers, more general nutrition education tools have been developed. Food groups, meal plans, or exchange lists are examples of food guides available to help consumers plan and prepare more nutritious meals. These tools have evolved and generally try to meet the need for a simple nutrition education system that still provides the nutritional detail needed. shifted to concerns about dietary excesses. The release of the Dietary Goals by a U. S. Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs in 1977 was a turning point in that quantitative limits were set for the dietary intake of certain food components that were linked to chronic diseases such as heart disease and cancer (2). The...
Good nutrition can help you achieve good health without having to sacrifice great-tasting food. Eating healthfully can help you work more productively, perform better athletically, maintain or reduce your weight, and dramatically lower your risk for heart disease and certain forms of cancer. A healthy diet is one that is well balanced, low in fat, high in fiber, and rich in whole grains, vegetables, and fruits. To consume a healthy diet, you need to choose foods that provide all the nutrients your body needs without an excess of fat, sugar, or calories. The milk, yogurt, and cheese group appears on the same level of the Food Guide Pyramid as the meat, poultry, fish, dry beans, eggs, and nuts group. Two to three daily servings of both dairy products and protein foods are suggested for good health. Dairy foods are an important source of calcium but can be high in fat, especially saturated fat, so you need to choose low-fat or fat-free varieties of milk, yogurt, and cheese. You may be...
The reasons why people with MS pursue CAM are as varied as the different CAM modalities used. Curing MS is not a frequently cited reason for using CAM. Common reasons include decreasing the severity of MS-associated symptoms, increasing control, improving health, and using a method that accounts for the interrelation of mind, body, and spirit. Some people are drawn to CAM because of the lack of effectiveness of conventional medications and anecdotal reports of benefits or recommendations from friends, relatives, or physicians (5,8,12). One study of CAM use in people with MS and other chronic diseases concluded that CAM was an important component for self-care and was not generally embraced as a rejection of conventional medicine or an unrealistic search for a cure (15).
Lack of exercise is a serious public health problem in the United States, contributing to chronic disease and premature death. Regular physical exercise is one of the most important steps you can take to protect your health and live longer. Each year, millions of Americans experience health problems that could have been prevented or relieved through regular physical activity. Exercise also lowers your risk of developing diabetes, high blood pressure, and colon cancer, and helps to reduce blood pressure in people who have high blood pressure. Exercise helps build and maintain healthy bones, muscles, and joints and prevents back pain by increasing your strength and flexibility and improving your posture. Physical activity also helps to decrease your percentage of body fat by preserving muscle mass. Exercise helps you lose weight and maintain your loss this is another way exercise helps you stay healthy and live longer. It can help
On the basis of current evidence, acupuncture and Asian herbal medicine, both of which are components of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), should be approached differently by people with MS. Acupuncture is of low risk, is possibly beneficial, and may be a reasonable treatment option for some people with MS. In contrast, Asian herbal medicine should be considered with caution by people with MS, especially for use on a long-term basis. Reports of treatment benefits using this therapy cannot be fully evaluated because of the lack of published information in English. Some herbs may be toxic or may stimulate the immune system, and the safety of long-term treatment has not generally been established.
Men with a disability are less likely to engage in physical activity than men who are not physically challenged, but they have the same need for exercise. Remember that physical activity doesn't have to be strenuous to achieve health benefits. You can attain significant benefits with moderate, daily activity. First, you should consult your doctor before beginning an exercise program. Ask him or her if it would be safe for you to spend 30 to 40 minutes each day wheeling yourself in your wheelchair through a shopping mall. Wheelchair basketball is another option that would provide excellent exercise and would vary your routine. You can also lift hand weights and do stretching exercises with your arms to build upper-body strength and flexibility. Check with a local YMCA or community center to see what exercise programs may be available for people who are physically challenged.
Every patient should be asked about his her smoking status during each visit consultation. As the guidelines stipulate, the physician then advises the patient to quit smoking with a clear ( It is important for you to quit smoking now, and I can help you. Cutting down while you are ill is not enough. ) and strong statement ( As your physician, I need you to know that quitting smoking is the most important thing you can do to protect your health now and in the future. The clinic staff and I will help you. ). The advice should also be personalized for the patient, highlighting his her particular situation. For example, the advice may be tied to the patient's health ( Your smoking is not only prolonging your cough, it is putting you also at risk for long-term respiratory problems, such as chronic bronchitis or emphysema. ) or the impact smoking might have on children ( You are putting your children at risk of asthma, ear infections and other diseases by exposing them to second-hand smoke...
Working together, teaming up, sharing responsibilities, or joining forces to create community intervention programs to promote health and effect behavior change or achieve goals. Several organizations may formally commit themselves to work together in developing a specific project or in accomplishing a mission. Collaboration involves shared decision making and allocation of resources (Austin, 2000). It promotes healthy working relationships and creative solutions to problems or needs, builds bridges in a community, and pools resources to effect change.
Ayurveda consists of several components. As in traditional Chinese medicine, pulse and tongue evaluation are important for diagnosis. Diet, exercise, lifestyle changes, and specific supplements are used therapeutically. Yoga, breathing exercises, massage, and meditation, discussed elsewhere in this book, are also components of Ayurveda. One type of Ayurvedic meditation, transcendental meditation (TM), was popularized by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi. Another important aspect of Ayurveda, panchakarma, is used for disease prevention. Panchakarma means five processes and includes massages, sweat baths, vomiting, enemas, and bloodletting (through the use of leeches). One specific Ayurvedic supplement, known as ashwagandha, is sometimes specifically recommended for treating multiple sclerosis (MS). This supplement is derived from the roots of the Withania somn fera plant. Two primary types of Ayurveda are practiced outside India. Maharishi Ayur-Veda was started by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi and relies...
What about the near future As you can see, the regulatory framework in the various member states is quite different. It is likely that the Traditional Herbal Medicines From the point of view of the legal status of herbal products, the Food Supplements Directive would create a category of food supplements, with few herbals, in addition to vitamins or minerals alone as inserted in the attached positive list. The Traditional Herbal Medicine Directive will apply to a restricted number of herbal medicines, having the characteristics of being considered traditionally used. For the major part of herbal products, not covered by the directives, the scenario in the near future seems to be still undefined. A radical ban on all the products not qualified as food supplements or traditional herbal medicines is probably not feasible because of their large number.
Probably we must come to a pessimistic conclusion. Just to try to find a way to ameliorate the scenario, but without expecting to know the whole truth, it could be a reasonable proposal to extend as much as possible the Traditional Herbal Medicine Directive to give rules for most products. Furthermore, the application of this directive to herbal products will, probably, ameliorate the quality and safety level of these products. Herbals and herbal extracts, as a matter of fact, should be considered in a different way from food products because of their peculiarities. The main problem regarding herbal products is their safety. This fundamental aspect cannot be guaranteed by current food production rules (basic hygiene requirements plus the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points, HACCP, system). Generally speaking, a fundamental initial step to get a valid proof of safety (non-toxicity) regarding botanicals starts from a chemically defined raw material. To obtain a safe botanical...
The capability to understand and respect cultural values, mores, attitudes, beliefs, ideas, behaviors, and customs that are different from one's own and the ability to respond effectively to those differences when planning, implementing, and evaluating health education programs across cultures. Health educators increasingly face situations that necessitate working in communities of diverse cultural backgrounds and need to be able to promote health
I want to talk to you about the things you usually do every day. I am going to read out some statements which describe things people often do when they are not well. Even if you think you are well, some of these statements may stand out, because they describe you and are related to your health. Listen to each statement, think of yourself today and tell me if it describes you or not. For example, I might read the statement, I am not driving my car. If you agree with this statement, you should tell me (agree disagree is the best response pattern). I will then ask, Is this due to your health Please answer yes or no. If you have not been driving for some time due to your health and are still not driving today, you should respond agree. (If respondents have never driven a car but have used public transportation such as a bus or train, substitute using public transport ). If you never drive or are not driving today because your car is being repaired, you should not respond that the...
In 1993, SOPHE published a revised summary code of ethics, noting that health educators take on profound responsibility in using educational processes to promote health and influence human well-being. Ethical precepts that guide these processes must reflect the right of individuals and communities to make the decisions affecting their lives. AAHE also developed health education ethics, laying out a common set of values designed to guide health educators in resolving many of the ethical dilemmas experienced in professional life (1994, p. 197). The code of ethics was further revised in 1999. These guidelines for professional conduct require from health educators a commitment to behave ethically and to encourage and support the ethical behavior of others. (Copies of the latest version of these documents can be obtained from their authors see Part Two.)
Although clinical measurements of functional status were often used for the elderly, clinicians and researchers paid little or no attention to early non-clinical publications by psychologists, which described surveys using indices to appraise happiness and psychological well-being. One study, in 1953, used objective measures that included good health, financial security, hobbies and interests, friends, living with one's spouse, age, and sex. Another study, in 1961, used subjective measures expressed as a life satisfaction scale and two smaller life satisfaction indexes. As a specific concept, the term quality of life (rather than quality of survival) seems to have entered the medical literature in a 1966 article about medically indigent patients receiving hemodialysis. After noting that the post dialysis medical problems included sepsis and cannula clotting, the authors concluded that, while an effective degree of life prolongation was obtained for some of these patients, for most,...
Newborn screening (NS) for congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is one of the major achievements of preventive medicine 1, 2 . Although since 1972 the problem of CH has been resolved in developed countries by the implementation of NS for CH, the problem exists for developing countries that still have no NS programs for CH 2, 3 . Since diagnosis based on clinical findings is delayed in most instances because of few symptoms and signs, hypothyroidism in the newborn period is almost always overlooked and delayed diagnosis leads to the most severe outcome of CH, mental retardation. In a study from Denmark, it was emphasized that only 10 of the affected infants were diagnosed within the first month of life, 35 within 3 months. 70 were diagnosed within the first year, while in the remainder the diagnosis was delayed to the 3rd and 4th years of life 4 . In a retrospective analysis of 1,000 cases of CH from Turkey, the mean age at diagnosis was 49 months and only 3.1 of cases were diagnosed within...
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Insider Nutrition Secrets
Secrets To Living Longer And Healthier Revealed By Nutrition Scientist! Insider Nutrition Secrets. Have you ever wondered what it might be like to find the long lost Fountain of Youth? We cant promise you that, but we can give you a close second. Starting today, learn the facts about what your body really needs to survive longer and healthier. Discover insider information from a former food and drug expert. Learn how a new food or drug is developed from the beginning until it finally reaches your grocers shelves.