Biological Warfare Ebooks Catalog

Alive after the Fall Review

Read alive after the fall to learn how to survive any kind of disaster you may face in the future. You will learn how to live off the grid and how to survive the most horrible scenarios your country may face. What medicine you must have for the emergency? How to find food and how to cook it? Many questions will arise in your head when you face the disaster but this guide will leave you prepared for the worse. The author AlexanderCain explains in details what disease spread in the dark times and what is the must have medicine. Alexander Cain also describes how to secure your car engine against EMP attack, and he teaches you about the most crucial electrical devices. How to save those electronic devices from EMP? The book teaches you how to build faraday cage in less than twenty five minutes to protect electronics from the EMP attack. Alexander also explains methods to prolong the shelf life of your food and medicine. When you read the bonus report you will learn how to survive nuclear attack and chemical attack. In last chapter Alexander explains how to get food and how to cock it without using electricity or gas. Read more here...

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Computational Chemistry The Beginnings At Lilly

I began work at Eli Lilly and Company in March 1942 as a laboratory aide in the analytical department. At that time, there was very little sophisticated instrumentation in the laboratory. The most complex calculations were carried out using a slide rule. After military service in World War II and an educational leave of absence to complete my undergraduate studies in chemistry at Indiana University, I returned to the Lilly analytical group in 1947. Slide rules were still much in evidence but were soon augmented with mechanical calculators usually Monroe or Friden models.

The Nature Of The Agent

There are also human-made disasters that are the consequence of a clear intention, as in the case of conventional war. In these cases, individuals are able to start up more or less legitimate or efficient coping or defence mechanisms to confront the aggression. The First World War was a war of fronts that affected little the rearguard, while in the Spanish Civil War and in the Second World War there were as many victims due to combat actions in the rearguard as in the front (settling of scores, bombing of the civil population, and so on). Therefore the psychological and psychopathological reactions were different. During the First World War, those evacuated from the front came to a safe rearguard, in which they were assisted in an attentive way, favouring the appearance of very dramatic conversion symptoms. During the Spanish Civil War 11,12 , those evacuated came to a rearguard which was also affected and they presented more psychosomatic symptoms, i.e., more internalised ones. The...

Historical Conceptualizations

Starting with the Civil War, American conceptualizations of posttraumatic reactions were understood mostly as somatic physiological reactions, usually affecting the cardiovascular system. According to Hyams, Wignell, and Roswell (1996), proposed somatic physiological diagnoses were Da Costa syndrome irritable heart (Civil War), soldier's heart, neurocirculatory asthenia and shell shock (World War I), and effort syndrome (World War II). Attributing these reactions to organic causes had a number of sociopolitical implications Soldiers could avoid the stigma and sense of personal failure associated with mental disorders, and the military could ignore the need for psychological interventions. Sigmund Freud rebelled against the primary focus on organic explanations for psychopathology in vogue during that period. Because of his influence, psychological etiologies began to be proposed for understanding and treating psychopathology, in general, and posttraumatic reactions, in particular....

Assuring the Success of Long Term Storage 41 Experience and Critical Issues

International regulations for cell substrates (18,19) International regulations on proliferation of biological warfare International regulations and protocols for product testing (e.g., OECD Good Laboratory Practice (20), Pharmacopeia monographs (http www.usp.org or http www.pheur.org )

General Aspects Of Medical Management

It is imperative that all parties involved in responding to bioterrorism understand the characteristic aspects of infection caused by individual pathogens, pathologies that may accompany infections, and modes of transmission, diagnostics, and treatment. At the first indication of the probability of exposure to biological warfare agents, healthcare providers must consider vigorous implementation of several procedures dealing with patients

Mandibular Reconstruction

The complex issues related to restoration of the oro-mandibular defect are best highlighted by work done during World War II, when traumatic mandibular injuries were treated with static splints. Patients were often left with severe contractures and, as oral cripples, were unable to maintain oral compe-tency.24 The sequelae related to delayed mandibular reconstruction were observed quite early in history. In an effort to prevent these sequelae, nonvascularized rib, tibia, clavicle, and iliac bone were all used to primarily reconstruct the mandible during the early 1900s.24'25 Progressive resorption and the inability of the bone to withstand the axial stress associated with mastication led to poor results.26 To address this problem, Snyder et al.27 and Conley28 reported on the use of pedicled osteocutaneous flaps for mandibular reconstruction. A decade later, Barnes et al.29 pedicled clavicle on sternocleidomastoid muscle and Biller et al.5 reported on the use of rib pedicled on...

The Secret Lives of Dictyostelium

Dictyostelium Nc4

In 1991, the archives of the Soviet Union and its satellites began to open and to inform us in the West about events that we had perceived only dimly. This history was meticulously stored in endless files, and as these came under scrutiny, we came to realize that truth does not just spring forth. It requires sifting, close reading, and interpretation by linguists and historians. Was so and so a spy What actually happened during the Cuban Missile Crisis How extensive was the Soviet biological warfare effort Slowly, new perceptions formed and we came to understand events differently or in greater detail. You may think that this is a strange way to introduce a chapter on an ameba, but we will see how far this metaphor, the opening of an archive, carries us. The opening of an archive and the sequencing of a genome are similar in the sense that at one moment you do not know something and then, within a very short time, you do. They are parallel in that dramas of the past, some completely...

Definition and a Brief History of Biomarker Research

A reasonable starting point for any discussion of biomarkers applications is with a general definition of the term 'biomarkers.' In recent years a formal definition has been crafted by a committee termed the Biomarkers and Surrogate Endpoint Working Group the definition of 'biological marker (biomarker)' they have put forth reads as follows a characteristic that is objectively measured and evaluated as an indicator of normal biological processes, pathogenic processes, or pharmacologic responses to a therapeutic intervention.1 This definition is broad by necessity, as the field has impacts across biological systems and disease areas and can incorporate any of the technologies that are applicable in basic biological or clinical research. Although there has been an increase in attention to and formalization of the biomarkers field, in practice biomarkers have been an integral component of biomedical research for decades. The primary focus has historically been on biomarkers of disease...

Separation of Bacteria From Matrix

Normally, the process of separating the cells from the environmental or clinical matrix is conducted in a laboratory. This step is important, both because major enzymatic inhibitors can be located in the matrix (14) and because of the loss of sensitivity and specificity if the DNA is isolated directly from the matrix. The sensitivity issue is of particular importance in monitoring or diagnosis of harmful or pathogenic bacteria. Microorganisms may form biofilms that are tightly attached to a surface. Critical steps are the separation of the organisms from the matrix. For soil samples, the separation of the microorganisms from the matrix can be a particular problem. The microbial cells may be tightly associated with the soil matrix, as is the case for clay particles, where the microorganisms may be bound to the particles through ionic interaction (15). Most of the methods for sample preparation from soil are thus based on direct lysis approaches (16). Recently, there has been an...

Monte Carlo Simulations

Monte Carlo search methods are stochastic techniques based on the use of random numbers and probability statistics to sample conformational space. The name ''Monte Carlo'' was originally coined by Metropolis and Ulam 4 during the Manhattan Project of World War II because of the similarity of this simulation technique to games of chance. Today a variety of Monte Carlo (MC) simulation methods are routinely used in diverse fields such as atmospheric studies, nuclear physics, traffic flow, and, of course, biochemistry and biophysics. In this section we focus on the application of the Monte Carlo method for

Neuronal Representations Knowledge Stores

Broca's and Wernicke's seminal studies led to the golden age of the study of brain-behavior relationships called neuropsychology. This golden age lasted until the First World War, and then there was a shift in position to the mass action or nonlocalization hypothesis. The reason for the decline of the localizationist approach is not fully known, but there were probably two major factors. The first was a change in the political-philosophical Zeitgeist. Most of the early localizationist work was done on the European continent, primarily in France and Germany. After the First World War these continental European powers lost much of their power and their influence on Western thought, but the English-speaking countries such as the United States and the United Kingdom flourished. The Anglo-American social and political systems were strongly influenced by the philosophic writings of John Locke, who proposed that the brain was like a tabula rasa or a blank wax tablet. Unlike the modularity...

Echo Ranging Of The Body

After World War II, with sonar and radar as models, a few medical practitioners saw the possibilities of using pulse-echo techniques to probe the human body for medical purposes. In terms of ultrasound in those days, the body was vast and uncharted. In the same way that practical underwater echo ranging had to wait until the key enabling technologies were available, the application of echo ranging to the body had to wait for the right equipment. A lack of suitable devices for these applications inspired workers to do amazing things with surplus war equipment and to adapt other echo-ranging instruments. Research Institute, Dr. George Ludwig, who had underwater ranging experience during World War II, and F. W. Struthers embedded hard gallstones in canine muscles to determine the feasibility of detecting them ultrasonically. Later, Ludwig (1950) made a number of time-of-flight measurements of sound speed through arm, leg, and thigh muscles. He found the average to be cav 1540 m s, which...

Sweet marjoram Origanum majorana Pot marjoram O onites Lamiaceae

Marjoram is thought to have originated in Cyprus and adjacent southern Turkey, although it has naturalized over much of the Mediterranean region. It was cultivated in Egypt and by the Greeks and Romans in antiquity. In classical times it was regarded as the herb of happiness. It was probably introduced to Britain during the Middle Ages and is today cultivated in Mediterranean areas and in several other countries in Europe, America, Africa, and Asia including Southeast Asia. It was only on return of the American GIs from Italy after World War II that sweet marjoram became well known in the United States. It was used to flavor ale before the popularity of hops, and it is still used as a beer preservative. Its aromatic leaves may be used either fresh or dried in much the same way as thyme, although it has a sweeter flavor. There was an old belief that sprays of marjoram and thyme laid beside milk in a dairy would prevent it from going sour in thundery weather. As its flavor is more...

Ultrasound Portrait Photographers

The Dussiks' work, as well as war developments in pulse-echo imaging, motivated others to make acoustic images of the body. For example, Dr. D. Howry and his group were able to show that highly detailed pulse-echo tomographic images of cross sections of the body correlated well with known anatomical features (Holmes, 1980). Their intent was to demonstrate that ultrasound could show accurate pictures of soft tissues that could not be obtained with x-rays. Howry and his group transformed the parts of a World War II B-29 bomber gun turret into a water tank. A subject was immersed in this tank, and a transducer revolved around the subject on the turret ring gear. See Figure 1.5 for pictures of their apparatus and results.

Modern Ultrasound Imaging Developments

Also during the 1980s, transducer technology underwent tremendous growth. Based on the Mason equivalent circuit model and waveguide, as well as the match-ing-layer design technology and high coupling piezoelectric materials developed during and after World War II, ultrasonic phased array design evolved rapidly. Specialized phased and linear arrays were developed for specific clinical applications cardiogy radiology (noncardiac internal organs) obstetrics gynecology and transvaginal endoscopic (transducer manipulated on the tip of an endoscope) transesopha-geal (transducer down the esophagus) and transrectal surgical, intraoperative (transducer placed in body during surgery), laparoscopic, and neurosurgical vascular, intravascular, and small parts. With improved materials and piezoelectric composites, arrays with several hundred elements and higher frequencies became available. Wider transducer bandwidths allowed the imaging and operation of other modes within the same transducer at...

Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B

SEB has been extensively studied as a potential biological warfare agent. It can be aerosolized, it is stable, and it can induce considerable systemic damage including multiorgan failure, shock-like syndrome, and even death, particularly after high concentration exposures. Nonetheless, the consequences of SEB administered at even very low doses can be devastating. Some authors indicate that aerosol dispersion of SEB on a battlefield may produce up to 80 incapacitation. As a result of bioterrorism action, the numbers of affected populations would be significantly lower. In both cases, the major impact would arise from the incapacitating properties of the toxin rather than its lethality. Due to the duration of the illness, many daily activities within the affected community would be disrupted or cease entirely. A widespread panic reaction enhancing social destabilization would be a further consequence of a terrorist assault using SEB.

Clinical Research Standards

As mentioned earlier, the benchmarking for drug development comes largely from international guidelines and national legislation. Following the medical abuse of prisoners in Nazi concentration camps during the Second World War, the 1947 Nuremberg Code sought to establish a bill of rights for subjects participating in clinical experiments. This for the first time introduced the concept of informed consent. In 1964 the World Medical Association (WMA) extended these principles in an international declaration made at their Helsinki assembly. The so-called Declaration of Helsinki, now in its fifth revision, is today the accepted keystone of ethical standards in biomedical research.

What Type of Disaster

Technological and industrial disasters (train or plane crashes, sinking boats, explosions or fires in factories) are usually limited in space, which simplifies the organization of rescue operations. However, the Chernobyl radioactive cloud, in April 1986, threatened most of Europe. Disasters that are deliberately provoked by man (terrorist attacks, war bombings) are also usually limited in time and space, but the threat of recurrence may leave insecurity feelings in the population. Also, bombings of cities like Dresden, Tokyo, Hiroshima, and Nagasaki in World War II erased entire cities. Finally, society disasters, such as the panics in stadiums (Brussels, 29 April 1985 Sheffield, 15 April 1989) or at other places (the tunnel at Mecca, 1991) are generally limited in time and space. Whereas natural disasters can be attributed only to fate, destiny or the gods, man-made disasters involve questions of fault, cruelty, responsibility, which will complicate the psychological reaction to the...

Potential Etiologic Agents

BW Potential biological warfare agent and CW potential chemical warfare agent. Acute gastroenteritis Norwalk-like virus (vom-itoxin), Staphylococcus aureus toxinbw, Bacillus cereus toxin, all heavy metals (Hg, As). Noninflammatory diarrhea Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), Vibrio cholerae, astroviruses, cali-civiruses (genus Norovirus), rotaviruses, adeno-viruses, Cryptosporidium parvum, Cyclospora cayetanensis.

Mustards Brassica spp and Sinapis alba Brassicaceae

Mustards have been used as vegetables, oilseeds, condiments, and medicines. White mustard (Sinapis alba) probably originated in the eastern Mediterranean region, black mustard (Brassica nigra) in the Middle East, brown mustard (B. juncea) in central Asia, and Ethiopian mustard (B. carinata) in northeast Africa. For table mustard, white mustard is combined with a more pungent species, previously black mustard but now brown mustard, mainly because B. juncea can be harvested mechanically whereas the dehiscent fruits of B. nigra must be hard-harvested. The mustard gas used in the First World War was based on the chemical structure of the pungent glycoside of black mustard.

Nutmeg Mace Myristica fragrans Myristicaceae

From 1776 to 1802 the British occupied the Moluccas. The British introduced nutmeg cultivation to Penang and Singapore, ending the Dutch monopoly. In 1802, nutmegs were introduced to the West Indies. Cultivation in Grenada started in 1843, when the ending of slavery caused sugarcane cultivation to decline. Cocoa, then nutmeg, plantations replaced sugarcane. By the end of World War I, Grenada rivaled Indonesia in nutmeg production. These two nations are still the principal producers. Flavors of nutmeg and mace from the East versus the West Indies differ, so each region has its own markets.

Pepper Piper nigrum Piperaceae

Hindu colonists probably took pepper from India to Indonesia between 100 and 600 bc. Marco Polo observed pepper in India and Java around 1280. Vasco da Gama's search for pepper and other spices resulted in a sea route round Africa and a monopoly of the spice trade for Portugal. When the Dutch displaced the Portuguese from Indonesia in the 17th century, they captured the Indonesian pepper-growing areas, but pepper was by then too widespread for the Dutch to monopolize production. In the early 19th century the British organized pepper plantations in many parts of the Far East, including Malaya and Sarawak. After the Second World War, Japanese settlers introduced pepper plantations in Brazilian Amazonia.

T2 Trichothecene Toxins

Mycotoxins belong to a large group (more than 40) of highly toxic compounds produced by a variety of molds. Trichothecene toxins are synthesized by a number of species belonging to genera Trichoderma, Fusarium, Ceph-alosporium, Myrotecium, Verticimonosporium, and Stachybotrys. Fusarium fungi grow readily on barley, corn, oats, rye, and wheat. During World War II, consumption of bread baked from Fusarium-contaminated wheat flour resulted in the deaths of thousands of Russian civilians an event that focused attention on the chemistry and biological effects of trichothecenes. T2 toxins are attractive warfare agents. Their potent toxic effects can be attained through a variety of entry routes. Transdermal, inhalational, and ingestion exposures produce symptoms of intoxication. In biological warfare, T2 toxins would be dispersed as aerosols. Numerous reports alleged use of trichoecene toxins during the conflicts in Vietnam, Laos, Kampuchea, and Afghanistan. There are indications that T2...

Hippotherapy and Therapeutic Horseback Riding

Horseback riding as a therapy has been used for thousands of years. It was used in Greece in the fifth century B.C. to rehabilitate injured soldiers. Hippocrates wrote of horseback riding as a natural exercise. Similarly, wounded soldiers were treated with horseback riding in England during World War I.

Afferent Regulation Of Cell Survival

One of the best studied cases of afferent regulated survival is the nucleus magnocellularis (NM) in the chick central auditory system (Figure 7.31). Just before taking up her studies of NGF (above), Rita Levi-Mon-talcini had been studying the effect of cochlear nerve fibers on the survival of NM neurons and other brain stem nuclei. These studies have fascinated students of biology because they were performed with very little equipment in the countryside of Italy while World War II raged around her. In spite of these privations, Levi-Montalcini (1949) was able to show that the period of normal cell death is elevated when the cochlea is removed. Although there was little sign of degeneration at E11, the age at which auditory nerve fibers first activate NM neurons, there was a dramatic loss of cells by E21. Subsequent studies showed that about 30 of NM neurons are lost following cochlear ablation, and the effect of denervation is much reduced in adult animals (Parks, 1979 Born and Rubel,...

Lemongrass and Citronella Cymbopogon spp Poaceae

Cymbopogon citratus (West Indian lemongrass) and C. flexuosus (East Indian lemongrass) are grasses cultivated throughout the tropics for the oil in their leaves. Distillation in Kerala, in southern India, began in the 1880s but commercial plantations boomed in South and Central America during the Second World War. The citrus content is released by steam distillation of the leaves and used as a cheap fragrance for household polishes, waxes, and toiletries. It can also be used as a base for the production of ionones, which are used to produce violet-like fragrances, and is a powerful insect repellent. Production in China and Vietnam is currently increasing. West Indian lemongrass is

Pilates Method and the Physicalmind Method

The Pilates method and a variant of Pilates, the Physicalmind method, are two types of bodywork that are intended to increase flexibility and strength. The Pilates method was created during World War I by Joseph H. Pilates, a German inventor, boxer, and dancer. He developed the technique to help soldiers recover from war injuries. In the United States, Pilates has been practiced since the 1920s, and its popularity has grown during the past decade.

Carob Ceratonia siliqua Caesalpiniaceae

The carob pod is dried, roasted, and, after the seeds are removed, ground to be consumed as a beverage, as a coffee substitute. The ground pods also compete with cocoa powder, and can be made into bars of carob chocolate. Whole carob pods, with their thick, sweet pulp, were sold as sweets to be chewed raw in the United Kingdom during World War II when sweets were rationed, and are also used as animal fodder in the Middle East. As carob does not contain either caffeine or theobromine, it is marketed as a healthy substitute for coffee and chocolate.

Psychological Debriefing

The concept of group debriefing grew out of the work of Marshall during World War II. He noticed that when a person could describe what happened to him during a very stressful experience this served not only an abreactive purpose but allowed colleagues to correct misperceptions and render social support. This appeared to reduce the likelihood of combat stress reactions and to restore the readiness to combat 33 .

Historical Use of Sodium Hypochlorite

Of its activity in wounds, would await the work of Carrel and Dakin. The conditions of trench warfare during the First World War resulted in large numbers of casualties with wounds contaminated by soil and human and animal excrement. These conditions led to a high incidence of wound infection and gangrene 4 . Existing antimicrobial compounds such as phenol, mercuric chloride and tincture of iodine proved to be unsuitable for antiseptic treatment of large traumatic wounds. These compounds could not be used in the volume necessary to debride and disinfect the wounds without producing toxic or highly irritating effects 5 . To combat the high mortality that resulted from the wound infections of war, Nobel Laureate Dr. Alexis Carrel enlisted the aid of a noted chemist, Henry Dakin, to formulate a non-irritating solution that had significant antiseptic effect 2 . Dakin examined over 200 substances in his search for a solution that met Carrel's requirements 6 . Among the substances examined...

Overview of Protein Purification and Characterization

The aims of protein purification, up until the 1940s, were simply academic. To then, even the basic facts of protein structure were not fully appreciated, and pure proteins were needed just to study structure and test the rival theories of the pre-DNA days. During the Second World War, an acute need for blood proteins led to development of the Cohn fractionation procedure for purification of albumin and other proteins from serum (Cohn et al., 1946). This was the inception of large-scale protein purifications for commercial purposes Cohn fractiona-tion continues to be used to this day.

Portal of Entry Detection Clinical and Epidemiological Factors

Despite our best intentions, not every letter, water fountain, and ventilation duct can be checked and protected. Because of such limitations, healthcare workers (paramedics, nurses, ER physicians) and family members represent the first level of our existing and potential bioterrorism detection systems and the first contacts with victims of biological warfare. As a result most of our active bioterrorism countermeasures are essentially retroactive. Hence, our ability to rapidly and definitively identify the involved pathogen and to implement preexisting response plans is critically dependent on the appropriate performance at the entry portal level.

Motivation and Persistence

Even after Harlow's dramatic description of the effects of frontal lobe injury, not much research was performed on the functions of the frontal lobes until 1934, when Kleist had the opportunity to examine many of the soldiers who injured their frontal lobes during the First World War. He noted that these veterans also were apathetic and abu-lic, with a loss of drive and initiative. We still do not fully understand why the frontal lobes are so important for goal-oriented behavior however, Nauta (1971) a Dutch neuroanatomist who worked at MIT, provided us with one of the best explanations. He noted that information from the outside world is first transmitted to the primary sensory areas. As I mentioned, the auditory system projects to the superior portion of the temporal lobes, touch projects to the anterior portions of the parietal lobes, and vision projects to the occipital lobes (see Figure 3.6). These primary sensory areas perform elementary sensory analyses. Each of these primary...

Kenaf Hibiscus cannabinus Malvaceae

It is a fast growing plant that is able to grow in any tropical or subtropical climate free from heavy rain or strong winds. The stalks average 8 to 12 feet in height, usually over a growing season of 120 days. The color varies from purple to green depending on variety and conditions. Leaves occur on the upper part of the stalk and are light green and five-lobed. Single yellow flowers are borne on short stalks in the axils of the leaves. It is a relative newcomer to the Western Hemisphere having only been introduced within the last 200 years. The East India Company brought samples of kenaf cordage and sacking back to England and other parts of Europe. Cultivation has also taken place in the Philippines, South Africa, and, since the Second World War, in the northeast region of China. It is grown in eastern Europe and nothern Asia, and, since about 1940, it has been cultivated in the Americas, especially the United States (early research being in Alabama then moving to Florida on a...

Sunn Crotalaria juncea Fabaceae

Imports of the fiber from Asia into the United States were around 1,000 tons annually. It is also grown in the United States for fodder and as green manure. Since the Second World War exports from India were, until 1950, approximately a quarter of the total production. However, since 1950 exports have dropped to twelve percent of total production due to the Asian jute mills supplementing the supply of jute fiber available to them. World production of sunn was reported to be about 71,000 tons in 1964. Although sunn is not as strong as hemp, it is second to ramie in wet strength, resistance to salt-water organisms, and to mildew and rot. Consequently this fiber is used in products where these characteristics are beneficial (e.g., fish nets, marine ropes, etc.). It is also used in sacking materials and paper-making, but is now far more important as a green manure.

Sisal Agave sisalana Agavaceae

The plants was introduced to Florida and grown there without any attempt at commercialization until about 1888 when cultivation began in the Bahamas. In 1893, Dr. Richard Hindorf imported 1,000 plants from Florida to East Africa but only sixty-two plants survived the journey. The surviving plants were planted in Tanganyika where they thrived, boosting the number of plants to 63,000 by 1898. Prior to the First World War cultivation had begun in Kenya and Uganda. During the 1920s plantations were also established in Mozambique and Angola. Many other African countries were to start sisal production about this time. Indonesian production began in Sumatra in 1913 from plants imported from East Africa, and production rapidly increased. The Indonesian sisal has become one of the more desirable fibers due to careful and efficient preparation. During the First World War there was strong demand and high prices encouraging commercial production. Haiti had begun cultivation and, like the...

Henequen Agave fourcroydes Agavaceae

It has been cultivated for hundreds of years in Yucatan by the Mayan Indians. Since the 1880s most of the henequen exported from Mexico has been sent to the United States. Up until the Second World War twenty percent of production went to Europe. A Yucatan government department handled all sales of fiber. Henequen producers operated independently until 1912, but by 1915 a producers' association was authorized. By 1925 a co-operative was organized and replaced by the present organization, the Asociacion de Henequeneros de Yucatan, in 1938.

Phormium Phormium tenax Phormiaceae

Exports from New Zealand rose steeply from 1831 to 1907 (increasing from 1,062 to 28,547 tons). During the 1930s cultivation of the plant was started in Chile, Argentina, and Brazil. However, after the First World War production dropped, presumably due to the increase in competition from sisal and abac production. Export from New Zealand was discontinued during the Second World War. Small quantities of phormium are still produced outside New Zealand. Almost all production from St. Helena is exported to Europe. Production from Chile and Argentina is for domestic use only, but efforts to increase the Brazilian phormium for export have only been partly successful. The major drawbacks of phormium are the long periods between harvesting, susceptibility to moisture content of the soil, and irregular employment of labor.

Overview And Brief History Of Cognitivebehavioral Group Therapy For Trauma Survivors

Published reports of group therapy for combat-related trauma date back 60 years to World War II (Dynes, 1945). Two events in the late 1970s greatly accelerated the development of trauma-related group therapy. First, a nationwide network of community-based Vet Centers was established to serve the readjustment needs of Vietnam veterans. Rap groups, led by counselors who themselves were Vietnam veterans, were featured in these centers (Sipprelle, 1992). Secondly, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was introduced into the psychiatric diagnostic system in 1980, and was followed by many studies that soon established commonalities in symptom manifestations and pathogenesis across survivors of different traumatic experiences.

Paper birch Betula papyrifera Usdanrcs Plants Database Herman DE et al 1996 North Dakota tree handbook Usda Nrcs Nd

Birch has traditionally been used to produce bobbins, shuttles, dowels and spools for the textiles industry. Because of its high strength properties it makes excellent quality, structural plywood. The British Mosquito fighter bomber planes of World War II were built of birch ply. Selected logs are peeled for decorative veneers and small roundwood is predominantly used as pulp for paper-making.

Agents Properties and Mechanisms

Agents Phosgene (> chlorine) caused 85 of gas deaths in World War I both gases are used extensively in industry, along with NO2. Properties More water-soluble chlorine forms a yellow-green cloud with pungent odor more insoluble phosgene hydrolyzes in mist, forming a white cloud with pleasant odor of freshly mown grass or hay.

Guar gum Cyamopsis tetragonoloba Fabaceae

An herbaceous perennial native to tropical Africa, the guar or cluster bean, Cyamopsis tetragonoloba, produces guar gum, which gained popular use as a replacement for locust bean gum during World War II. (Locust bean gum, extracted from the seeds of the carob tree Ceratonia siliqua, became in short supply during the war as the tree is only found in the Mediterranean region.) The gum is extracted from the ground endosperm of the seed. Guar has been cultivated in India for centuries as a cattle fodder crop, and was introduced into the United States from India in 1903. Its superiority to starch as an additive for the papermaking industry led to research into further industrial applications. Aside from its use as a stabilizer in food products, guar gum is used as a sand- suspending agent in oil well drilling, a binding agent in explosives, a settling agent in mining, and an additive for water in fire hoses to reduce friction.

Guayule Parthenium argentatum Asteraceae

Guayule is a latex-producing shrub native to arid regions in Mexico and the southwestern United States. It was used as a minor alternative rubber source until World War II, when cultivation was begun in an attempt to internally satisfy the natural rubber needs of the United States. Even as early as 1910, guayule was the source of nearly ten percent of all natural rubber used worldwide.

Rubber Hevea brasiliensis Euphorbiaceae

The rubber plantations in Asia were supplying almost all of the world's rubber by World War II, and fighting eventually cut the United States, the main rubber consumer, off from this supply. Synthetic substitutes were created in the United States using petroleum, and accounted for the majority of the rubber on the market by the end of the war.

Palm oil Elaeis guineensis Arecaceae

Palm oil is similar to olive oil, which is also commonly used in soaps, in that both oils are extracted from the fruit pulp, not just from seed like many oil crops. Plantation production in Africa increased supplies after 1920. This helped meet industry demand as the use of palm oil in manufacture expanded beyond soaps and lubricants to include glycerine, a by-product of palm oil processing, for use in munitions manufacture during World War I and later, in the making of margarine.

Pyrethrum Tanacetum cinerariifolium syn Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium Asteraceae

Tanacetum cinerariifolium flowers provide a natural insecticide, pyrethrum. A perennial native to Asia, the history of its specific use is somewhat unclear, but similar uses of two other species of Chrysanthemum likely originated in Persia. One story of the discovery of its insecticidal effects is that of a German woman noticing dead insects near a discarded bouquet of the flowers and then being inspired to go into business manufacturing powdered pyrethrum. Regardless of its discoverer, pyrethrum from this plant was produced in Europe after 1820, and early commercial production occurred in Dalmatia and later in Japan, after being introduced to Japan in 1881. Centers of production shifted during times of war. Japan surpassed Dalmatia in production after World War I and remained the principal source of pyrethrum until Japanese production became insignificant during World War II. Introduced into eastern Africa in the 1920s, Tanacetum cinerariifolium thrived, increasing in quality and...

Sugar cane Saccharum officinarum Poaceae

Towards the end of the 19 th century, researchers learned how to breed high-yield sugar cane, and their hybrid plants soon replaced those of the Java type and others like it around the world (Galloway 1989, 12). By 1914, despite competition from sugar beet, sugar cane accounted for about 50 percent of the world's total sugar output. Much of World War I was fought in European sugar beet fields, devastating untold numbers of sugar beet crops. Indeed, by 1919, sugar cane was supplying 78 percent of the world's sugar, a percentage that to this day has never been surpassed (Galloway 1989, 235).

United Nations International Childrens Emergency Fund UNICEF

UNICEF, also known as the United Nations Children's Fund, was established after World War II to assist children in war-torn Europe, mainly through the distribution of powdered milk from the United States. As conditions improved, attention expanded from Europe to needy children throughout the world.

Regulations Opportunities And Constraints Japan

In Japan, functional foods are regulated under the Foods for Specified Health Use (FOSHU). The legislation, brought about in 1991 due to a rise in the popularity of functional foods and due to concerns over the illegal marketing of some products, is an amendment to the Nutrition Improvement Law which was created shortly after World War II. In order to be licensed under FOSHU, a food must meet several criteria which will be discussed in detail later in the chapter. The FOSHU legislation licenses products with special dietary uses to bear a label claiming health promotion benefits (25). Often these claims are somewhat vague with statements such as ''. . . need no anxiety on your decayed teeth ,'''' useful for improving the dietary life of a person whose blood pressure is somewhat higher . . .'' or ''. . . it refreshes your intestines '' However, foods making specific claims that they can prevent or treat disease are subject to regulation as medicines, which require much more supporting...

Vetiver Vetiveria zizanioides Poaceae

Extraction of vetiver oil (normally by steam) was developed in Java by the Dutch before World War II, and small quantities have been distilled in China since the 1950s. The French introduced vetiver to R union Island in the 1950s to join the many other oil crops grown there. It is also grown in the Seychelles, Haiti, Brazil, and Japan.

Tobacco Nicotiana tabacum Solanaceae

When World War I broke out in 1914, tobacco production got another boost. Cigarettes and cigars were considered to be important needs for the fighting soldier. In fact, cigarettes and cigars were distributed by the Red Cross to Austro-Hungarian soldiers in the form of rations. Cigarette rations were also distributed to British and Prussian soldiers. The mild narcotic attributes of cigarettes and their appetite-suppressing properties seemed to help ease the various physical and mental stresses of horrible trench warfare conditions. It became a common ritual to smoke a cigarette before a potential fatal assault.

Jute Corchorus capsularis and C olitorius Tiliaceae

The jute industry expanded through the First World War, trebling the population of Dundee in the space of fifty years. During the Second World War there was a rising demand for sandbags. After the attack on Pearl Harbor the demand for jute parachutes was high as well as for wrapping supplies that were to be dropped. However the Bengal Provincial Government restricted jute growing in favor of rice cultivation so that jute production declined steeply between 1939 and 1945. The largest use of hemp is in cordage of all types (ropes, twines, and cables) and also for sailcloth, canvas, and tarpaulins. The need for hemp by the armed services during World War II was considerable and could not be satisfied either due to transport disruption or insufficient supply to meet these needs, which necessitated the use of other fibers such as the stronger fibers of sisal, jute, or abac instead.

Antidotes and treatment of poisonings

Dimercaprol (BAL, British Anti-Lewisite) was developed in World War II as an antidote against vesicant organic arsenicals (B). It is able to chelate various metal ions. Dimercaprol forms a liquid, rapidly decomposing substance that is given intramuscularly in an oily vehicle. A related compound, both in terms of structure and activity, is di-mercaptopropanesulfonic acid, whose sodium salt is suitable for oral administration. Shivering, fever, and skin reactions are potential adverse effects.

Bioterrorism In History

Biological warfare has its roots in antiquity, when the practical applications of using biologically active agents on the battlefield were recognized. One of the earliest descriptions of battlefield use of biological weapons arose from the sea battle between the forces of Hannibal and King Eumenes of Pergamum (184 B.C.). Sailors on Hannibal's ships tossed earthen pots filled with venomous snakes on board the Eumenean vessels. The resultant terror and confusion among the Eumeneans assured Hannibal's rapid victory. Throughout the Middle Ages, the easiest and most effective form of biological assault was contamination of water supplies by tossing corpses and carcasses of animals into wells and rivers supplying besieged cities. Siege warfare led to a new form of attack where rapid surrender was assured by catapulting plague-ridden bodies into besieged towns. The practice continued well into the 18th century. More gruesome examples of germ warfare evolved during the conquest of the...

Social And Selfhelp Movements

Numerous self-help groups in the United States were founded during the Depression era. Many more were begun after World War II. These groups involved individuals who banded together to meet their common financial, social, or personal needs (Lieberman & Borman, 1976). Movements of the era differed in several important aspects from earlier abstinence-oriented groups as follows

Diagnostic Evolution

Influential writings in the 1970s and 1980s about the clinical presentations of sexual assault and domestic violence victims led to the rape trauma syndrome and battered women syndrome designations (Burgess & Holmstrom, 1974 Walker, 1984). These newly recognized conditions, in tandem with research on the mental health of World War II prisoners of war, survivors of the Nazi Holocaust, and returning Vietnam veterans, led to greater realization of the generalizability of reactions to life-threatening stressors. During this time, the PTSD diagnosis was unveiled as an anxiety disorder in the third edition of the DSM (DSM-III APA, 1980). Criteria for the traumatic stressor and specific symptoms were organized into three clusters. Accounting for the range of potentially traumatic events, the stressor criterion was described as something generally beyond the realm of normal human experience that would evoke significant symptoms of distress in most people (p. 236). The DSM-III revision...

Cholera

This disease is caused by Vibrio cholera, a Gram-negative, slightly curved bacillus whose motility is provided by a single polar flagellum. Vibrio species, including V. cholera and many noncholera species that can produce disease in humans, are among the most common organisms in surface waters and can be found in both fresh and salt water habitats. Although large-scale epidemic outbreaks of cholera were reported in the 1990s in South and Central America and in Asia, the incidence of the disease in the U.S. is low and most cases are related to foreign travel. Humans acquire the disease through ingestion of water or food contaminated with the bacilli. The most likely use of cholera bacteria in the context of biological warfare or bioterrorism is by contaminating water or food supplies. Dissemination in aerosol form is unlikely.

Background

ARDS was first described by Rene Laennec in 1821 as idiopathic anasarca of the lungs. Injured soldiers succumbing to respiratory failure were described as having a posttraumatic massive pulmonary collapse around World War I, while shock lung and white lung and DaNang lung all came during later military conflicts. It was not until the seminal description of ARDS by Ashbaugh and colleagues in 1967 that physicians recognized their differing descriptions of the same syndrome.1

Sodium Hypochlorite

Sodium hypochlorite has long been recognized for its effectiveness as an antiseptic and disinfectant. In his historic pioneering work, in which he proved in a convincing clinical trial the importance of hand disinfection, Semmelweis used sodium hypochlorite as a hand wash and disinfectant to reduce mortality from childbed fever 1 . In another historic discovery, Carrel and Dakin introduced 0.45-0.5 buffered sodium hypochlorite for the treatment of trauma wounds during the First World War 2, 3 . This solution, known as Dakin's solution revolutionized the treatment of trauma wounds and was used during and after the war. The effectiveness of sodium hypochlorite solution as an antimicrobial is unquestioned however, its practical use in medicine had been limited due to its reduced stability. However, the method of manufacture makes the medical use of sodium hypochlorite a viable option.

Future Automation

For environmental analyses, handheld equipment that can be brought into the field is currently being developed (47). Because of the fear of biological warfare, the US army is a driving force in these developments (17). Advances also have been made in the field of pathogen control in animals used for food production (48). Future developments will be an integration of all steps into a single apparatus as in the concept of lab-on-a-chip. The current focus for lab-on-a-chip has changed from expensive silica-based to cheap plastic chips (49). These chips are gaining acceptability, mainly because they are affordable and because the liquid volumes that can be processed are in a practical range for most applications.

Ricin Toxin

Ricin is a powerful toxin derived from the castor plant, Ricinus communics. The toxic effects of ricin were recognized in ancient times. While its potency does not match bacterial or viral biological warfare agents, its potential for such applications rests in the ease and low cost of manufacture and stability in liquid, crystalline, lyophilized, and aerosolized forms. Although highly popularized by the press, ricin is not an effective biological weapon. Its toxicity, while high, is nearly 1000-fold less than that of botulinum and a very large amount would be required to produce the effects expected of an effective biological warfare agent. Its potential as a destabilizing agent and as a weapon against specific targets remains high because of its ready availability and multiple dissemination modes. Aerosol exposure, injection, or ingestion as food or drink may all lead to a lethal outcome.

Saxitoxin

The 20 shellfish toxins whose ingestion results in paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) are all derivatives of saxitoxin. While ingestion of all shellfish poses the risk of intoxication, PSP is typically associated with mussels, clams, cockles, and scallops. The toxins are very potent. The symptomatology produced by intoxication leads frequently to misdiagnosis and underreporting. Like other biotoxins, saxitoxin has many uses in pharmacological research. However, since saxitoxin is approximately 1000 times more potent than paralyzing warfare agents such sarin, it has a great interest among groups that advocate chemical and biological warfare. In 1970, President Nixon ordered the Central Intelligence Agency to destroy its entire stock of the compound within 5 years. Congressional hearings revealed that the agency retained approximately 10 g.

Brassicaceae

The condiment mustard is based on the seeds of these three plants of the cabbage family. Black mustard has been in cultivation for more than two thousand years and is native to Europe and Asia and has become naturalized in North America. It was the main ingredient of mustard until World War II, but because it sheds its seeds readily when ripe it is unsuited to mechanical harvesting and has now been largely replaced by brown mustard whose seed is not so strongly flavored. Black mustard is still grown in areas where hand harvesting persists. White mustard (known as yellow mustard in the United States) is the mustard of mustard and cress. It is used in American mixed mustards and to some extent in English mustard but is forbidden in Dijon mustard.

Wheat Triticum spp

Cultivated Einkorn Spike

Macaroni wheat (T. durum) is the free-threshing form of emmer wheat, with hard, flinty grains. It first appeared in the Near East about 9000 14C years ago. Macaroni wheat has always been important in Mediterranean areas. Its best-known use is for pasta, a food of uncertain origin, perhaps from the Arab world and not, as often claimed, brought back from China by Marco Polo. In the 19th century the Ukraine became the leading exporter of macaroni wheat for pasta making, but it lost this position to the United States during World War I. Macaroni wheat also makes a delicious bread that is a staple food in Sicily. Rivet wheat (T. turgidum) is a closely related species that is well adapted to the cooler conditions of northern Europe. It was popular during the medieval period, but bread wheats proved better adapted to the threshing machines introduced in the 19th century, and were better suited to industrialized baking. Rivet wheat has notably soft, floury grains, and produced a good...

Antimalarials

The prevalence of aplastic anemia among US soldiers in the Pacific during World War II rose from 0.66 to 2.84 per 100,000 after quinacrine's introduction (Custer 1946). This represented 58 patients, 48 of whom received quinacrine. Of these, 16 were associated with overdoses, and two received marrow-suppressant drugs concurrently (Wallace 1989). It is therefore recommended that patients receiving antimalarial treatment have a complete blood cell count and a serum creatinine test every few months during therapy. Patients taking chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine should undergo ophthalmologic examination at 6- or 12-month intervals, respectively.

Anthrax Toxin

Anthrax toxin is the major virulent factor of Bacillus anthracis. Owing to its high mortality when the infection is untreated, and its ability to exist in an aerosol form, it poses a threat to public health as a potential reagent for biological warfare and terrorism. The toxin consists of three proteins, lethal factor (LF),edema factor (EF), and protective antigen (PA). Among them, the lethal factor appears to be a protease that targets the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MAPKK) family of pro-teins.edema factor is an adenylate cyclase and PA forms a membrane pore-like transporter once activated by furin-like cellular proteases. The crystal structures of all three factors have been solved (Table 17.1.17 Petosa et al., 1997 Pannifer et al., 2001 Drum et al., 2002 Shen et al., 2002).

Gram Positive Rods

Gram Positive Rod Endospore Blood Agar

Anthrax is a historically important infection, thought to be the fifth and sixth plagues of ancient Egypt, brought by Moses. It was the cause of several disastrous animal plagues in Europe in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. In 1877, Robert Koch cultured Bacillus anthracis, the first proof of a microbial agent causing human disease (1). This discovery supported germ theory and gave birth to the science of modern microbiology. Subsequently, Pasteur and Greenfield successfully developed the first vaccine, composed of attenuated B. anthracis (2). Anthrax has been explored as an agent of biological warfare because of its exceptional virulence and capability to create an aerosol of odorless, invisible spores. Its spores could potentially be dispersed over densely populated areas, and generate disease in a multitude of people with high mor

Warm Zone

WHERE LARGE-SCALE EXPOSURE TO A BIOLOGICAL WARFARE AGENT IS STRONGLY SUSPECTED OR CONFIRMED, BE ALERT TO THE PRESENCE OF POWDERS, LIQUIDS, LIQUID DROPLETS, OR STAINS THAT MAY INDICATE CONTINUING PRESENCE OF THE CONTAMINANT. IF LIQUID CONTAMINATION IS NOTICED, AND AS A PRECAUTION AGAINST EXPOSURE TO T2 TOXINS (DISPERSED AS LIQUIDS OR MISTS), FULL DERMAL PROTECTION (NONENCAPSULATING SUITS) WITH HEPA FILTERS ATTACHED TO PAPRS IS RECOMMENDED.

Emotional Engagement

Tional withdrawal has been consistently associated with relationship problems. Numbing, which involves restricted affect and detachment from others, has been identified as more difficult to treat than other symptoms of trauma and predicts distress in a survivor's relationships (Riggs et al., 1998). Emotional numbing was found to be significantly related to relationship difficulties, independent of the severity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in World War II ex-POWs (Cook, Riggs, Thompson, Coyne, & Sheikh, 2004). Solomon et al. (1992) highlighted the alienation that emotional withdrawal can cause and suggested that combat veterans' withdrawal in their relationships leaves their partners lonely and vulnerable to a wide variety of psychological problems. For couples that have survived a sexual assault, Miller, Williams, and Bernstein (1982) found that partners have difficulties with emotional support and communication. In addition, survivors of CSA and their partners...

Hypothermia in Water

A fair amount of data concerning survival time in cold water is known from experiences in World War II, as well as from experiments carried out in concentration camps.1517,21 In concentration camps, it was found that it takes 70-90 min for a man to die when immersed in water at 4-9 C.17 Data on

Low sensitivity

Since World War II numerous associations between potential causal factors and major diseases have been found and confirmed. These were strong associations with large relative risks (ratio risk in persons exposed to the factor of interest risk in the unexposed). Examples are smoking and lung cancer, excercise or dietary habits and coronary heart disease, urban pollution and lung disease, industrial asbestos exposure and mesothelioma. The results hardly needed statistical analysis to be convincing. Most of the evident risk factors have been revealed and confirmed. The associations epidemiologists are looking for nowadays are likely to be more subtle. Owing to computer programs, the design and statistical analysis of studies have become more sophisticated. Nevertheless, the results often fail to be convincing.

Protective Factors

Wessely 109 reviewed the literature about the prior screening of troops in World War II and found that many of the characteristics that were thought to be markers of vulnerability had little predictive ability. A study of twin pairs in the US services at the time of the Vietnam war found that there was a genetic vulnerability to PTSD and this was related to personality 110 . The roles that individuals chose in the military were predicted partly by their genetically determined temperamental traits, such as novelty seeking. Individuals with this personality trait were more likely to choose roles that exposed them to high levels of danger in combat. The problem is that such a personality style is likely to characterise those who choose jobs in the emergency services, as those who tend to be harm-avoidant will choose safer careers. Harm-avoidance is a personality trait that is protective but cannot be used as a selection criterion for the emergency services. Such paradoxes highlight the...

Dialysis

During World War II a Dutch physician, Dr. Willem J. Kolff, and his associates first successfully used an artificial kidney, although the longest they succeeded in keeping someone alive with no kidney function was 26 days. Their patients had acute kidney failure, usually as a result of injuries.

Fragrant Plants

In medieval times, perfume was believed to be important in the prevention of sickness. Before germ theory of disease was developed in the 19th century, foul and pestilential airs were believed to cause infection, hence the strewing of herbs on floors to release supposedly protective fragrances and the use of tussie mussie bouquets and pomanders as prophylactics. These may have been indirectly effective in repelling insect carriers of disease-causing organisms. The production of oils and scented waters was a domestic industry, and manor houses had still rooms. In southern France, a major farming industry developed around Grasse during the early 17th century, growing rose, violet, jasmine, tuberose, myrtle, cassie, and narcissus, among other fragrance crops. This industry declined after the Second World War due to rising land prices and labor costs, although the town does retain the production of lavender and has several perfume museums. Today, most world perfume production is...

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