Metabolic effects of insulin

Insulin is an anabolic hormone with widespread effects. Increased glucose entry in adipose tissue and muscle cells. Glucose entry into cells is brought about by a family of sodium-independent facilitative glucose transporters, known as GLUT-1 to GLUT-5. Insulin stimulates translocation of glucose transporters from intracellular pools to the cell membrane. Increased glycolysis in muscle and adipose tissue. Increased glycogen synthesis in adipose tissue, muscle and liver cells. Reduced...

Pineal gland

The pineal gland is attached to the roof of the third ventricle, and lies outside the blood-brain barrier. It weighs 100-150 mg and has a length of about 9 mm. It is a homologue of the third or parietal eye of the lower vertebrates. The pineal starts to involute just prior to puberty. The gland consists of neurons, neuroglial cells and pinealocytes, which secrete melatonin into the CSF. The environmental light-dark cycle and autonomic circadial stimulation by the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the...

Left ventricular relaxation diastole

Isometric ventricular relaxation, with both inlet and outlet valves closed. This ends with opening of the atrio-ventricular valves. Passive ventricular filling. Rapid phase, with ventricular suction Atrial systole or booster it is debatable whether atrial systole actually boosts g ventricular filling or merely prevents stagnation of venous blood in the atria. f The treatment of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction leading to failure e involves the use of drugs that facilitate ventricular...