The mechanisms of achieving balance are: Vestibular hair cells respond to changes in movement or position of the head; The semicircular ducts respond to angular acceleration in specific directions; The utricle responds to linear acceleration in all directions; The lateral vestibular nucleus participates in control of posture; The medial and superior vestibular nuclei mediate vestibulo-ocular reflexes;
Factors involved in equilibrium
Eyes and eye muscles
Posterior column Tendons Joints Muscles
Responses to rotational acceleration in the plane of a semicircular canal: Barany a chair. With abrupt cessation of rotation, the endolymph continues to circulate for a ¡i period of time. ct
Responses to linear acceleration. n
Caloric stimulation: convection currents in the endolymph, with consequent motion of the cupula.
Electronystagmography: based on the corneo-retinal potential difference to allow measurement of eye movement. Galvanic stimulation. Vestibular-evoked responses.
The inferior vestibular nucleus integrates inputs from the vestibular labyrinth and the cerebellum; The vestibulo-collic and vestibulo-spinal reflexes maintain the head vertical with respect to gravity.
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