Blood glucose homeostasis

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Fasting blood glucose ranges between 3.5 and 5.5 mmol/l. The renal threshold for glucose is around 10.5 mmol/l.

Blood glucose homeostasis depends on:

Insulin, whose secretion is stimulated by glucose, glucagon, amino acids, ketoacids and other gastrointestinal tract hormones. Secretion is inhibited by adrenaline and somatostatin.

Counter-regulatory hormones - glucagon, catecholamines, cortisol and growth hormone - which antagonise the metabolic actions of insulin.

Blood glucose levels depend on a balance between intake, utilisation and production of glucose:

Glucose is utilised in cellular transport and phosphorylation, as well as in glycolysis and glycogen synthesis.

Glucose is produced by glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis. Dietary glucose intake can be from glucose itself, glucose-containing polysaccharides (starch and glycogen), glucose-containing disaccharides (sucrose, maltose, lactose), sugars readily converted to glucose (fructose), gluconeo-genic amino acids and the glycerol moiety of triglycerides.

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