Blood glucose homeostasis

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Fasting blood glucose ranges between 3.5 and 5.5 mmol/l. The renal threshold for glucose is around 10.5 mmol/l.

Blood glucose homeostasis depends on:

Insulin, whose secretion is stimulated by glucose, glucagon, amino acids, ketoacids and other gastrointestinal tract hormones. Secretion is inhibited by adrenaline and somatostatin.

Counter-regulatory hormones - glucagon, catecholamines, cortisol and growth hormone - which antagonise the metabolic actions of insulin.

Blood glucose levels depend on a balance between intake, utilisation and production of glucose:

Glucose is utilised in cellular transport and phosphorylation, as well as in glycolysis and glycogen synthesis.

Glucose is produced by glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis. Dietary glucose intake can be from glucose itself, glucose-containing polysaccharides (starch and glycogen), glucose-containing disaccharides (sucrose, maltose, lactose), sugars readily converted to glucose (fructose), gluconeo-genic amino acids and the glycerol moiety of triglycerides.

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Diabetes 2

Diabetes 2

Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...

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