Brain areas outside the bloodbrain barrier

'Windows of the brain' are characterised by higher capillary densities and by the presence of fenestrated capillaries. They help form a functional interface between the CNS and the endocrine system, sensing hormonal changes. They are essentially midline structures located adjacent to the ventricular spaces and arising from the ependymal lining of the ventricular system. The circumventri-

cular organs, which abut on the third and fourth ventricles can be classified as either: Secretory:

Posterior lobe of the pituitary gland: neurohypophysis.

The area of the median eminence of the hypothalamus: releasing or inhibiting hormones from the hypothalamus are released into capillaries of the hypothalamic-pituitary portal system. Pineal gland. Subcommissural organ. Receptor:

The organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis, which monitors cytokines in the blood.

The area postrema at the inferior border of the fourth ventricle: drugs stimulate the chemoreceptor trigger area in the floor of the fourth ventricle; monitors cholecystokinin. Subfornical organ: monitors angiotensin II levels.

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