Bronsted Lowry definitions

An acid is a proton donor to a base. A base is a proton acceptor from an acid. Acid-base reactions are proton transfer reactions.

An acid losing a proton to a base forms a base itself. A base accepting a proton forms an acid. Every acid has its conjugate base, and every base its An acid-base reaction is a dynamic equilibrium acid-base pairs.

conjugate acid. between two conjugate

Table 3.1. Relation of pH to hydrogen ion activity pH H ion activity(nmol/l)

l 6.90 126

7.20 63

7.30 50

7.40 40

7.50 32

7.60 25

7.70 20

7.80 16

A substance that can act as both an acid and as a base is called an amphoteric substance. Water has amphoteric properties.

The strength of an acid is specified by its dissociation constant.

A strong acid has a dissociation constant greater than that of H3O+ and is almost completely ionised in aqueous solutions. A weak acid has a dissociation constant less than that of H3O+(1 in aqueous solutions) and is only partially ionised in aqueous solutions.

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