An acid is a proton donor to a base. A base is a proton acceptor from an acid. Acid-base reactions are proton transfer reactions.
An acid losing a proton to a base forms a base itself. A base accepting a proton forms an acid. Every acid has its conjugate base, and every base its An acid-base reaction is a dynamic equilibrium acid-base pairs.
conjugate acid. between two conjugate
Table 3.1. Relation of pH to hydrogen ion activity pH H ion activity(nmol/l)
l 6.90 126
A substance that can act as both an acid and as a base is called an amphoteric substance. Water has amphoteric properties.
The strength of an acid is specified by its dissociation constant.
A strong acid has a dissociation constant greater than that of H3O+ and is almost completely ionised in aqueous solutions. A weak acid has a dissociation constant less than that of H3O+(1 in aqueous solutions) and is only partially ionised in aqueous solutions.
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