Causes of hyposplenism

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Congenital

Asplenia Hypoplasia

Immunodeficiency disorders

Acquired

Splenectomy

Acute atrophy and/or infarction: Sickle cell disease Radiotherapy Autoimmune disorders Essential thrombocythaemia Chronic alcoholism Hypopituitarism Malabsorption syndromes

Functional asplenia with normal-sized or enlarged spleen

Infiltration by leukaemia, lymphoma, multiple myeloma, mastocytosis

Early sickle cell disease

Amyloidosis

Sarcoidosis

Benign and malignant vascular tumours Malabsorption syndromes

Reduced immune function

AIDS

Endocrine: hypopituitarism, hypothyroidism, diabetes mellitus

Chronic alcoholism

Post chemotherapy/radiation therapy

Antibody (IgM) and lymphokine production in lymphoid follicles (B cells). Macrophage activation; Production of opsonins: tuftsin, properdin. Reservoir:

Storage or normal sequestration of platelets, granulocytes; Recycling of iron;

Red blood cell storage-blood reservoir (minor in humans). Haematopoietic function: Erythropoiesis, granulopoiesis, megakaryopoiesis; Lymphocyte and macrophage production;

The haematopoietic role is primarily seen during fetal life and in situations of bone marrow destruction or dysfunction.

I BIBLIOGRAPHY

Greer, J. P., Foerster, J., Lukens, J. N., Rodgers, G. M., Paraskeva, F. & Glader, B. Wintrobe's Clinical Haematology, 11th edn. vols. 1 and 2. Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 2004.

Hoffbrand, A.V., Pettit, J.E. & Moss, P.A.H. Essential Haematology, 4th edn. Oxford:

Blackwell Science, 2001. Schiffmann, F.J. Haematologic Pathophysiology. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven Publishers, 1998.

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