The axons emerge through the ventral roots of T1-L2 with the axons of the somatic motor neurons. Sympathetic chains: 24 pairs of paravertebral ganglia and their connecting trunks
Stellate: cervicothoracic: ganglion: inferior cervical ganglion fused with T1 or T1 and T2 Sympathetic plexuses Thorax: cardiac; pulmonary Abdomen: coeliac; pelvic Sympathetic postganglionic fibres: small, unmyelinated C fibres Spinal nerves Cranial nerves Arterial walls Direct visceral nerves Segmental distribution of sympathetic outflow: C8-T4: head and neck T1-T5: heart and lungs T4-10: upper gastrointestinal tract T12: lower gastrointestinal tract T12-L2: pelvic genito-urinary organs Adrenergic neurons are found in: Postganglionic sympathetic neurons
Some interneurons Certain central neurons
Components of the parasympathetic system «
Parasympathetic preganglionic neurons: g
Brain stem: cranial outflow: III, VII, IX, X nerves y tt
Preganglionic fibres: e
Edinger-Westphal nucleus Superior and inferior salivatory nuclei Dorsal vagal nucleus Lacrimal nucleus Nucleus ambiguus Ganglion cells: Ciliary ganglion Pterygopalatine ganglion Submandibular ganglion Otic ganglion
Sacral spinal cord: S2-S4 segments of intermediolateral cell column
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