Effects of gastrin

Stimulates acid secretion by the parietal cells. This is achieved by direct stimulation of the parietal cells, and by inducing the release of (from gastric enterochromaffin-like cells) and potentiating the action of histamine.

Stimulates pepsin and intrinsic factor secretion.

Stimulates mitotic activity in the mucosa of the stomach, small intestine and colon (trophic effect).

Contraction of the musculature of the lower oesophageal sphincter.

Stimulation of insulin, glucagon and calcitonin secretion.

Stimulation of pancreatic enzymes and bile flow.

Stimulation of small intestinal secretion.

Stimulation of gastric, small and large intestinal and gall bladder motility.

The gastrocolic reflex.

Inhibition of contraction of the pylorus and sphincter of Oddi.

Stimuli for gastrin secretion

Luminal: peptides and amino acids distension of the antrum Neural: increased vagal discharge, probably non-cholinergic Blood borne: calcium adrenaline

Causes of hypergastrinaemia

Gastrinoma

Antral G cell hyperplasia Gastric outlet obstruction Following massive small bowel resection Pernicious anaemia

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