Exercise training

The adaptations of skeletal muscle with exercise training involve:

Increased amounts of enzymes involved in beta oxidation, Krebs cycle metabolism and the electron transport chain;

Improved fatty acid transport through the sarcolemma, the plasma membrane of the muscle fibre;

Improved transport of fatty acids within the muscle cell by the action of carnitine and carnitine transferase;

Proliferation of capillaries, represented by an increase in numbers and in their density.

Effects of endurance training

Improved ability to obtain ATP from oxidative phosphorylation;

Increased size and number of mitochondria;

Less lactic acid produced per given amount of exercise;

Increased myoglobin content;

Increased intramuscular triglyceride content;

Increased lipoprotein lipase;

Increased proportion of energy derived from fat, less from carbohydrate; Lower rate of glycogen depletion during exercise; Improved efficiency in extracting oxygen from blood; Decreased number of type lib fibres; increased number of type Ila fibres.

Figure 9.7 Muscle spindle.

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