y Menstrual phase: 0-3 days
Proliferative phase: 3-14 days Secretory phase: 14-20 days Preparation for implantation: 21-26 days Endometrial breakdown: 24-28 days
Follicular or proliferative phase Endocrine: Rising LH, with mid-cycle peak; Falling FSH, with a small mid-cycle rise; Rising oestrogen, with a pre-ovulatory peak; Rise in progesterone at mid-cycle.
Proliferation of glandular, stromal and luminal epithelium; Proliferation of vascular elements: spiral arterioles.
Breast: Epithelial proliferation; Ductal epithelial sprouting. Luteal or secretory phase Endocrine: Declining LH after mid-cycle peak; Declining FSH after mid-cycle peak, rising at the end; Oestrogen peak in mid-cycle, decreasing by the end; Increasing progesterone, declining by the end.
Early: elongation; filling of lumina with glycogen-rich secretions; coiling of spiral arterioles.
Late: saw tooth glands; stromal oedema caused by fluid accumulation in the extracellular matrix.
Breast: Secretory changes; Ductal dilatation.
Functions of the Fallopian tubes
Pickup of the ovum g
Transport of gametes e'
Menstruation is caused by withdrawal of ovarian steroid support from the decidualised endometrium. Spiral arteriolar vasospasm causes endometrial ischaemia. Lysosomal enzyme release ensues. Shedding of the decidua func-tionalis of the endometrium occurs. Control of menstrual bleeding is achieved by platelet plug formation, prostaglandins ( PGE2, PGF2a) and endometrial repair.
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