This demonstrates the following features: Residual urine is less than 50 ml; The desire to void starts at a capacity of 150-200 ml;
A strong desire to void is associated with a capacity of around 400 ml or over; The detrusor pressure does not rise on filling; There are no systolic detrusor contractions; There is no leakage of urine on coughing; The rise in detrusor pressure on voiding is less than 50 cm H2O; The peak flow rate is greater than 15ml/s for voided volumes greater than 150 ml;
Brenner, B. M. Rector's The Kidney, 7th edn., vols. 1 and 2. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders, 2004.
Johnson, R.J. & Feehally, J. (eds.) Comprehensive Clinical Nephrology, 2nd edn. St Louis: 2003.
Lote, C. Principles of Renal Physiology, 4th edn. Mosby, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000.
Wirz, H., Hargitay, B. & Kuhn, W. (1951). Lokalisation des konzentrierungs-prozesses in der Niene durch direkte kryoskope. Helv. Physiol. Pharmacol. Acta, 9, (1951) 196-207.
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