• Functions as a selective permeability barrier (permeability regulator: filter function).
Large molecules: vesicular transport; passage through intercellular junctions Small molecules: vesicles; junctions; and through cytoplasm
• Forms a blood compatible container with a non-thrombogenic surface, which is achieved by the balance between the prothrombotic and the antithrombotic and fibrinolytic characteristics of the endothelial cell.
• Synthesis/metabolism/secretion of:
Vasoactive (vasorelaxing and vasoconstricting) autacoids: prostacyclins; leu-
kotrienes; nitric oxide; endothelin; angiotensin-converting enzyme. Connective tissue components: laminin, fibronectin, vitronectin. Chemokines: monocyte chemoattractant protein-1.
Adhesion molecules: von Willebrand factor, E-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1.
• Binding and internalisation of lipoproteins: modify low density lipoproteins (LDLs)- LDL receptor; lipoprotein lipase.
• Synthesis of stimulating or inhibitory mitogens, with autocrine and paracrine effects.
• Regulator of vascular tone (regulation of smooth muscle contractility) Smooth muscle relaxation: nitric oxide.
Smooth muscle contraction: endothelin; angiotensin II
• Regulator of haemostasis and inflammation: secretes procoagulant factors and inflammatory mediators:
Platelet adhesion and activation: von Willebrand factor; P-selectin; E-selectin;
platelet-activating factor Coagulation: thrombomodulin; heparin sulphate
Characteristics shared by all endothelial cells
Factor VIII/ von Willebrand factor staining; S
Cell-specific surface lectins; l
Uptake of acetylated LDL; Response to angiogenic growth factors.
Vasoactive endothelial products
Endothelium-derived relaxing factors
Nitric oxide Prostacyclin (PGI2)
Endothelin-I Thromboxane Prostaglandin H2 Oxygen free radicals
Fibrinolysis: tissue type plasminogen activator (t-PA); urinary (u)-PA;
plasminogen activator inhibitor Cytokines: interleukins -1, -6 and -8.
• Forms growth-regulating molecules: platelet derived growth factor; fibroblast growth factor; tissue growth factor beta.
• Forms connective tissue macromolecules (matrix factors): collagen; proteoglycans.
Was this article helpful?
So maybe instead of being a pencil-neck dweeb, youre a bit of a fatty. Well, thats no problem either. Because this bonus will show you exactly how to burn that fat off AS you put on muscle. By boosting your metabolism and working out the way you normally do, you will get rid of all that chub and gain the hard, rippled muscles youve been dreaming of.