Gastric phase: pepsins form oligopeptides and free amino acids, which stimulate secretin and cholecystokinin secretion.
Luminal phase: pancreatic proteases and peptidases (three endopeptidases and two exopeptidases).
Brush border phase: amino acid absorption. Aminopeptidases in the brush border membrane hydrolyse oligopeptides further. Amino acid transport systems transport free amino acids. A peptide transport system transports dipeptides and tripeptides.
Fat-soluble vitamin absorption
Vitamin A: passive diffusion Vitamin D: passive diffusion Vitamin E: passive diffusion Vitamin K:
K1 or phytomenadione: carrier mediated uptake K2 or multiprenyl menaquinones: passive diffusion
Tests for intestinal absorption l
Fat absorption e
72 hour stool fat: >6 grams per day on a 60-100 gram fat diet is abnormal t
C14-triolein breath test e
Prothrombin time and international normalised ratio Serum vitamin D
Lactose/hydrogen breath test Flat oral glucose tolerance curve
There are five major sodium-dependent amino acid transport systems in the brush border of the enterocyte: Neutral amino acids Anionic amino acids Imino acids Neutral amino acids Cationic amino acids and cystine Basolateral membrane amino acid transport systems export amino acids into the portal circulation.
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