* Clearance techniques: organic anions (para-aminohippurate or PAH; ortho-aminohippurate or Hippuran). Substances completely cleared by the kidney in a single pass have a clearance that is equal to the renal plasma flow. Indicators should be freely filtered at the glomerulus and secreted by the tubules, but not reabsorbed, metabolised or synthesised by the kidneys. The excretion ratio of PAH is high provided the plasma concentration is kept low. By the application of the Fick principle, flow = removal rate/arteriovenous difference.
* Isotope washout techniques: xenon, krypton
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