Synovial membrane

This lines the joint cavity and consists of two cell types: type A cells with a prominent Golgi apparatus, numerous vesicles and vacuoles, and many mitochondria; and type B cells, with a large endoplasmic reticulum and a few vacuoles that secrete hyaluronan. The functions of the synovial membrane include:

Secretion of sticky mucoid substance into synovial fluid, which lubricates the joint and nourishes the avascular articular cartilage; Allows for changes in the joint cavity shape and size associated with normal joint movement, as a result of flexibility, loose synovial folds, villi and marginal recesses; Aids in removal of substances from the joint cavity.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Berridge, M.J. Inositol triphosphate and calcium signalling. Nature, 361 (1993), 315-25. Gilman, A. G. Guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins and dual control of adenyl cyclase. J. Clin. Invest., 73 (1984), 1-4.

Hadley, M. E. Endocrinology. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 2000. £

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Nussey, S.S. & Whitehead S.A. Endocrinology. An Integrated Approach. Oxford: Bios

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