The components of bone

The extracellular organic matrix (osteoid), which contains calcium in the form of hexagonal hydroxyapatite crystals;

A cellular component of bone-forming osteoblasts and bone-resorbing osteo-clasts. The cells are embedded in the matrix.

The extracellular matrix

This comprises:

Collagen, mainly type I. This has a triple helical structure, with two identical alpha 1 chains and one unique alpha 2 chain cross-linked by hydrogen bonding between hydroxyproline and other charged residues.

Other proteins and proteoglycans: Proteoglycans I and II Matrix GIa protein Osteonectin

Osteocalcin (bone G1a protein)

RGD (arg-gly-asp)-containing glycoproteins: Thrombospondin

Fibronectin, laminin: adhesive proteins

Vitronectin

Osteopontin

Fibrillin

Bone sialoproteins I and II

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