The Gibbs Donnan equilibrium

If a large impermeable organic ion is present on one side of a membrane, the permeable ions distribute themselves unequally on either side of the membrane. The product of the permeable ions outside the membrane are thus equal to the product of the permeable ions inside the membrane. This allows preservation of chemical equilibrium and electrical neutrality. The system is, however, not in osmotic equilibrium, as the total number of particles in the solution with the non-permeable anions is greater than the total number of particles in the other solution. This situation arises from the accumulation of excess protein with anionic charge on one side of a membrane. With a Gibbs-Donnan equilibrium:

* The concentrations of ions on either side of the membrane do not match each other.

* Within each solution, the concentrations of anions and cations are equal to each other, maintaining electroneutrality.

* The concentration of diffusible cations is greater in the solution containing the non-permeable, negatively charged particles.

e * The concentration of diffusible anions is greater in the solution without the

0 non-permeable particles. p y

1 Nerve conduction velocity can be measured in sensory, mixed and motor nerves. o g Measurement entails recording of evoked response potentials caused by supramaximal stimulation with skin electrodes.

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