Hypersensitivity Reactions Allergies

Allergy is a specific, exaggerated immune response to a (usually harmless) foreign substance or antigen ( p. 94ff.). Allergens are antigens that induce allergies. Small molecules conjugated to endogenous proteins can also have antigenic effects. In this case, they are referred to as incomplete antigens or haptens. The heightened immune response to secondary antigen contact ( p. 94ff.) normally has a protective effect. In allergies, however, the first contact with an antigen induces...

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Glycolysis Simplified

Carbohydrate Metabolism and Pancreatic Hormones Glucose is the central energy carrier of the human metabolism. The brain and red blood cells are fully glucose-dependent. The plasma glucose concentration blood sugar level is determined by the level of glucose production and consumption. The following terms are important for proper understanding of carbohydrate metabolism A, C 1.Glycolysis generally refers to the anaerobic conversion of glucose to lactate p.72 . This occurs in the red blood...

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Glucose And Insulin Cortisol

And glycogenesis and suppresses those involved in gluconeogenesis. Insulin also increases the number of GLUT-4 uniporters in skeletal myocytes. All these actions serve to lower the plasma glucose concentration which increases after food ingestion . About two-thirds of the glucose absorbed by the intestines after a meal postprandial is temporarily stored and kept ready for mobilization via glucagon during the interdigestive phase. This provides a relatively constant supply of glucose for the...

Kidneys Salt and Water Balance

Outer Stripe Medulla

Three fundamental mechanisms characterize kidney function 1 large quantities of water and solutes are filtered from the blood. 2 This primary urine enters the tubule, where most of it is reabsorbed, i.e., it exits the tubule and passes back into the blood. 3 Certain substances e.g., toxins are not only not reabsorbed but actively secreted into the tubule lumen. The non-reabsorbed residual filtrate is excreted together with the secreted substances in the final urine. Functions The kidneys 1...

Catecholamine Adrenergic Transmission and Adrenoceptors

Adrenergic Transmission

Certain neurons can enzymatically produce L-dopa L-dihydroxyphenylalanine from the amino acid L-tyrosine. L-dopa is the parent substance of dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine the three natural catecholamines, which are enzymatically synthesized in this order. Dopamine DA is the final step of synthesis in neurons containing only the enzyme required for the first step the aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase . Dopamine is used as a transmitter by the dopaminergic neurons in the CNS and by...

Blood Buffer System

Buffers Blood

The pH of any buffer system is determined by the concentration ratio of the buffer pairs and the pKa of the system p. 378 . The pH of a bicarbonate solution is the concentration ratio of bicarbonate and dissolved carbon dioxide HCO3- CO2 , as defined in the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation A1 . Given HCO3 24mmol L and CO2 1.2mmol l, HCO3- CO2 24 1.2 20. Given log20 1.3 and pKa 6.1, a pH of 7.4 is derived when these values are set into the equation A2 . If HCO 3 drops to 10 and CO2 decreases to...

Pneumothorax

Open Pneumothorax

Pneumothorax occurs when air enters the pleural space and Ppl falls to zero p. 108 , which can lead to collapse of the affected lung due to elastic recoil and respiratory failure B . The contralateral lung is also impaired because a portion of the inspired air travels back and forth between the healthy and collapsed lung and is not available for gas exchange. Closed pneumothorax, i.e., the leakage of air from the alveolar space into the pleural space, can occur spontaneously e.g., lung rupture...