Hypersensitivity Reactions Allergies

Allergy is a specific, exaggerated immune response to a (usually harmless) foreign substance or antigen ( p. 94ff.). Allergens are antigens that induce allergies. Small molecules conjugated to endogenous proteins can also have antigenic effects. In this case, they are referred to as incomplete antigens or haptens. The heightened immune response to secondary antigen contact ( p. 94ff.) normally has a protective effect. In allergies, however, the first contact with an antigen induces...

Conduction of Sound Sound Sensors

Kno Membvrana Tympani

Sound waves are transmitted to the organ of hearing via the external ear and the auditory canal, which terminates at the tympanic membrane or eardrum. The sound waves are conducted through the air (air conduction) and set the eardrum in vibration. These are transmitted via the auditory ossicles of the tympanic cavity (middle ear) to the membrane of the oval window ( A 1,2), where the internal or inner ear (labyrinth) begins. In the middle ear, the malleus, incus and stapes conduct the...

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Glycolysis Simplified

Carbohydrate Metabolism and Pancreatic Hormones Glucose is the central energy carrier of the human metabolism. The brain and red blood cells are fully glucose-dependent. The plasma glucose concentration blood sugar level is determined by the level of glucose production and consumption. The following terms are important for proper understanding of carbohydrate metabolism A, C 1.Glycolysis generally refers to the anaerobic conversion of glucose to lactate p.72 . This occurs in the red blood...

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Digestion and Absorption of Carbohydrates and Protein Carbohydrates provide half to two-thirds of the energy requirement p. 226 . At least 50 of dietary carbohydrates consist of starch amylose and amylopectin , a polysaccharide other important dietary carbohydrates are cane sugar saccharose sucrose and milk sugar lactose . Carbohydrate digestion starts in the mouth A1 and p. 236 . Ptyalin, an a-amylase found in saliva, breaks starches down into oligosaccharides maltose, maltotriose, a limit...

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Pain is an unpleasant sensory experience associated with discomfort. It is protective insofar as it signals that the body is being threatened by an injury noxa . Nociception is the perception of noxae via nocisensors, neural conduction and central processing. The pain that is ultimately felt is a subjective experience. Pain can also occur without stimulation of nocisensors, and excitation of nocisensors does not always evoke pain. All body tissues except the brain and liver contain sensors for...

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Selective attention, abstract thinking, the ability to verbalize experiences, the capacity to plan activities based on experience, self-awareness and the concept of values are some of the many characteristics of consciousness. Consciousness enables us to deal with difficult environmental conditions adaptation . Little is known about the brain activity associated with consciousness and controlled attention LCCS, see below , but we do know that subcortical activation systems such...

Hormones and Reproduction

Unlike unicellular organisms, multicellular organisms have numerous specialized groups of cells and organs, the many different functions of which must be expediently integrated and coordinated see also p. 2 . In mammals, the nervous system and endocrine system are chiefly responsible for control and integration, while the immune system serves as an information system for corporal immune defense p.94ff. . These systems communicate by way of electrical and or chemical signals A . Nerve impulses...

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Nucleus Paraventricularis Crh

Nitric oxide NO as a transmitter substance In the hypothalamus, 1 humoral signals from the periphery e.g., from circulating cortisol can be converted to efferent neuronal signals, and 2 afferent neuronal signals can be converted to endocrine messengers neurosecretion . The first case is possible because the hypothalamus is situated near circumventricular organs like the or-ganum vasculosum laminae terminalis OVLT , sub-fornical organ, the median eminence of the hypothalamus, and the...

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Synthese Thyreoglobulin Iodide

B. Hormone synthesis and secretion Metabolism, growth, maturation, etc. Hypothyroidism occurs when TSH-driven thyroid enlargement is no longer able to compensate for the T3 T4 deficiency hypothyroid goiter . This type of goiter can also occur due to a congenital disturbance of T3 T4 synthesis see below or thyroid inflammation. Hyperthyroidism occurs when a thyroid tumor hot node or diffuse struma e.g., in Grave's disease results in the overproduction of T3...

Catecholamine Adrenergic Transmission and Adrenoceptors

Adrenergic Transmission

Certain neurons can enzymatically produce L-dopa L-dihydroxyphenylalanine from the amino acid L-tyrosine. L-dopa is the parent substance of dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine the three natural catecholamines, which are enzymatically synthesized in this order. Dopamine DA is the final step of synthesis in neurons containing only the enzyme required for the first step the aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase . Dopamine is used as a transmitter by the dopaminergic neurons in the CNS and by...

Blood Buffer System

Buffers Blood

The pH of any buffer system is determined by the concentration ratio of the buffer pairs and the pKa of the system p. 378 . The pH of a bicarbonate solution is the concentration ratio of bicarbonate and dissolved carbon dioxide HCO3- CO2 , as defined in the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation A1 . Given HCO3 24mmol L and CO2 1.2mmol l, HCO3- CO2 24 1.2 20. Given log20 1.3 and pKa 6.1, a pH of 7.4 is derived when these values are set into the equation A2 . If HCO 3 drops to 10 and CO2 decreases to...

Pneumothorax

Open Pneumothorax

Pneumothorax occurs when air enters the pleural space and Ppl falls to zero p. 108 , which can lead to collapse of the affected lung due to elastic recoil and respiratory failure B . The contralateral lung is also impaired because a portion of the inspired air travels back and forth between the healthy and collapsed lung and is not available for gas exchange. Closed pneumothorax, i.e., the leakage of air from the alveolar space into the pleural space, can occur spontaneously e.g., lung rupture...