Info

A (ampere), unit 375

band, muscle 60 AA (amino acids) 240, 258,182,

184, 296 Abdominal muscles 108 pressure 108, 238, 264 reflex 320 Aberration, spherical 346 AB0 system 100 Absolut threshold, eye 352 smell 340 ear 362

Absorption, intestinal, of amino acids 258 carbohydrates 258 electrolytes 262 fat 252 iron 90 lipids 252 peptides 258 vitamins 260 Abstract thinking 336 ABP (androgen-binding protein) 306

ACAT(acyl-CoA-cholesterol acyl transferase) 256 Acceleration (unit) 374 angular (rotational) 342 detection 342 linear (translational) 342 sensor 314, 342 Accessory nucleus 368 Accident, electrical 200 Acclimatization 224 Accommodation, eye 342, 346 range 342, 346 reflex, intestine 244 rectum 264 stomach 240 ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme) 184 inhibitor 184 A cells, islets of Langerhans 282, 284

Acenocumarol 104 Acetate, conjugates 160 Acetazolamide 172 Aceton 284

Acetylcholine 34, 52, 78ff., 236, 242 antagonists 82 cerebral cortex 332 control of circulation 212 ff. coronary vasodilatation 210 esophagus 238 esterase 56, 82

gastrointestinal tract 234 heart action 194 motor end plate 56 NO-synthase activation 82 pankreas 246 parietal cells 242 release 82

receptors ^ cholinoceptors second messenger 55 F, 274, 276

synthesis 82 Acetylcholinesterase 56, 82

synaptic cleft 82 Acetyl coenzyme A 284 A chain, insulin 282 Achalasia 238 Acetylsalicylic acid 104

cyclooxygenase inhibition 269

Achromat 356 Acid, fixed 174 production 174 titratable 174, 178 Acid-base balance 138, 142 compensatory mechanisms 142

disturbances 142, 146, 176 kidney 174 liver 176

metabolic disturbances 142 normal parameters 142 regulation 142 respiratory disturbances 144 status, assessment 146 Acidosis 142 hyperkalemic 180 influence on protein-bound

Ca2+ 290 K+ concentration, plasma 180 lact- 76

metabolic 142, 262, 284 nonrespiratory (metabolic)

142, 262, 284 in diarrhea 262 phosphaturia 178 renal tubular 142, 176 respiratory 126, 142, 144 Acini, salivary gland 236 Acne 306

Aconitase, iron absorption 90 Acoustic information, central processing 368 pathways 368 thresholds 362, 368 Acrosomal reaction 308 ACTH ^ corticotropin ACTH reserve 294 Actin 14, 30, 56, 58, 62, 70, 82 filament 14, 60 molecular structure 60

myosin interaction 68 smooth muscle 70 skeletal muscle 60 Action potential 42, 62

all-or-none depolarization 46

depolarization phase 46 heart 59 A, 192, 194 overshoot 46 pacemaker, heart 192 postsynaptic neurons 82 propagation 48 purkinje fibers 200 repolarization phase 46 retina 354

skeletal muscle 56, 59 A smooth muscle 59 A Activating energy 40 Activation system, subcortical 336

Active immunization 94

transport 26, 44 Activin, FSH secretion 306 Activity coefficient 376 Acuity, visual 348 Acyl-CoA-cholesterol acyl transferase (ACAT) 256 Adam-Stokes attack 200 Adaptation, eye 350, 352, 354, sensors 312 smell 340 taste 338

thermosensation 314 ADCC (antigen-dependent cellmediated cytotoxic-ity) 96 Addison's disease 182 Adenin 8

Adenohypophysis 268, 280 Adenosine, coronary vasodilatation 210 second messenger of 274 Adenosine diphosphate ^ ADP monophosphat ^ AMP triphosphat ^ ATP Adenylate cyclase 37 C1, 274, 276 inhibition with acetylcholine 82

ADH ^ adiuretin Adhesion molecule (VLA-4) 98 Adhesion, platelets 102 Adiadochokinesis 328 Adiuretin 24, 162, 170, 269, 280 activated Cl--channels 162 deficiency 166 effects 212, 280 receptor types 24, 55 F, 166, 280

salt/water homeostasis 173 B second messenger 24, 55 F

secretion 170, 218 ADP72

role in autoregulation 212 ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) 30 Adrenal cortex 254, 272, 294, 303,306 androgens 306 fetal 304

glucocorticoids 296 HDL receptors 254 hormone synthesis 294 ff., 304

progesterone 303 zones 294, 296 medulla 78, 86, 268, 272, 296 hormones 86 Adrenalin ^ epinephrine Adrenergic transmission 84 Adrenoceptors 84, 212, 214 a- 84, 212 f. a-1- 80 ff., 214, 276,304

renin secretion 184 a2- 52, 80 ff., 86, 146, 230, 248 insulin secretion 282 second messenger 55, 274 agonists 87 B antagonists 87 B p- 86, 212 f.

p1-, renin secretion 184

second messenger 85 ff., 274 p2-, 85ff., 212, 284 coronary vasodilatation 210 second messenger 55, 85ff., 274

salivary glands 236 p3-, fatty tissue 84, 222 second messenger 55, 274 stomach 242 distribution 81, 87 B G- proteins 55, 87 B kidney 214 localisation 81 ff. receptor types 84 ff. skin 214 types 84, 87 B uterus 304 Adrenocortical hormones 294 insufficiency 182 tumor 216 Adrenocorticotropic hormone ^

corticotropin Aerobic glucose metabolism 72 Affinity, transport system 28 Afterload, heart 204 maxima, curve 203 Afterloaded contraction 66

heart 202 Agglutination, red blood cells 100 Aggregation, platelets 102 AIP(aldosterone-induced proteins) 182 Air, composition 107 A, 385

sound conduction 364 Air space, voice 370 Airway resistance 134 A-kinase (proteinkinase A, PKA)

84, 274 Akinesia 326

Alanin, glucagon secretion 284 Alarm reaction 86, 330 Albumin 92, 154, 158, 268, 306 bilirubin binding 250 calcium binding 290 pressure, oncotic 208 renal filtration 154 reabsorption 158 testosterone binding 306 T3/T4 transport 288 Alcohol, energy source 226 Aldosteron 162, 170,182ff., 184, 216

antagonists 172 deficiency 182 degradation 183 D effects 182

induced protein (AIP) 182 K+ metabolism 180 Na+-transport, intestinal 262

tubular 180 ff. receptor 172

glucocorticoids 296 secretion 182, 183 D synthesis 294 Alkaline phosphatase 250 Alkalosis 142 Ca2+ concentration, serum 290 hypokalemic 172, 180 K+ plasma concentration 180 metabolic 142 nonrespiratory 142 phosphate reabsorption, renal 178

respiratory 142, 144 high altitude 136 vomiting 238 Allergens 98, 100 Allergy100 anaphylactic shock 218 delayed type hypersensitivity 100

immediate reaction 100 Allodynia 318

All-or-none-response 46, 66, 192 all-trans-retinal 348,350 Alternating current 50, 375 Altitude gain 136 Alveolar gas 114

partial pressure 120 equation 120,136,389 exchange 120, 124 pressure (PA) 108, 116 Alveolar ventilation 106, 114, 120 ff.

Alveoli 106,118 ff.

cell types 118 contact time 120 diffusion distance 120 surface 118 tension 118 Amacrine cells, retina 344, 354 Ambient temperature pressure H2Û-saturated (ATPS) 112

Amenorrhea 230 Amiloride 172

L-Amino acid decarboxylase 84 Aminoaciduria 258 Amino acids (AA) 240, 258, 182, 184, 296 co-transport with Na+158,

258 essential 226 glucagon secretion 284 gluconeogenesis from 282 influence on insulin release 282 ff.

intestinal absorption 258, 262

metabolism, cortisol effect 296

pylorus, effect on 240 renal transport 156, 158 storage 284 transmitter 55 F Y-aminobutyric acid (GABA) 52, 320

p-aminohippurate 150, 160 Aminopeptidases, small intestine 258

Ammonia ^ NH3 Ammonium ^ NH4+ Amnesia 336

Amount of substance, unit 375 5'-AMP 276

AMP, cyclic 84, 236, 274, 286 adrenergic transmission 84 TSH 286 AMPA receptors ^ glutamate Ampere (A), unit 375 Amplification, cochlear 366 Ampulla, labyrinth 342 Amygdala 310, 320, 330, 336, 340

a-amylase 246, 258 Amylopectin 258 Amylose 258 Anabolic, action 280 insulin 284 STH 280 testosterone 306 Anaerobic glycolysis 72

threshold 72 Analgesic action 318 Anal sphincters 264 Anaphylaxis 100 Anastomoses, arteriovenous 224

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